Communings


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COMMUNINGS, Scotch law. This term is used to express the negotiations which have taken place before making a contract, in relation thereto. See Pourparler.
     2. It is a general rule, that such communings or conversations, and the propositions then made, are no part of the contract for no parol evidence will be allowed to be given to contradict, alter, or vary a written instrument. 1 Serg. & R. 464 Id. 27; Add. R. 361; 2 Dall. R. 172 1 Binn. 616; 1 Yeates, R. 140; 12 John. R. 77; 20 John. R. 49; 3 Conn. R. 9; 11 Mass. R. 30; 13 Mass. R. 443; 1 Bibb's R. 271; 4 Bibb's R. 473; 3 Marsh. (Kty.) R. 333; Bunb. 175; 1 M. & S. 21; 1 Esp. C. 58; 3 Campb. R. 57.

References in classic literature ?
He was often thus when communing with himself on board ship in the quietude of the night.
Returning to the proceedings of him of the Rueful Countenance when he found himself alone, the history says that when Don Quixote had completed the performance of the somersaults or capers, naked from the waist down and clothed from the waist up, and saw that Sancho had gone off without waiting to see any more crazy feats, he climbed up to the top of a high rock, and there set himself to consider what he had several times before considered without ever coming to any conclusion on the point, namely whether it would be better and more to his purpose to imitate the outrageous madness of Roland, or the melancholy madness of Amadis; and communing with himself he said:
I pray you, good sir," said the parson, "permit yourself this once to be admonished by her ladyship: peradventure, by communing with young Madam Sophia, she will effect more than you have been able to perpetrate by more rigorous measures.
There now came a lull in his look, as he silently turned over the leaves of the Book once more; and, at last, standing motionless, with closed eyes, for the moment, seemed communing with God and himself.
His spirit seemed then to be communing with the viands.
Do they think we are communing with a reserve force of rascals at the bottom?
Thus communing within himself, he called his constables together and told them what was in his mind.
He took it up, ashamed rather of his negligence regarding it, and prepared himself for a disagreeable hour's communing with that crabbed-handed absent relative.