confirmation

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confirmation

in the Scots law of succession, the official document that allows the executor to administer the estate. It reproduces the inventory of the estate submitted by the executor. The confirmation includes heritage and is effective throughout the whole of the UK. It affects property outside Scotland if the deceased had been domiciled in Scotland. A simpler form is available for small estates.

CONFIRMATION, contracts, conveyancing. 1. A contract by which that which was voidable, is made firm and unavoidable.
     2. A species of conveyance.
     2. - 1. When a contract has been entered into by a stranger without authority, he in whose name it has been made may, by his own act, confirm it; or if the contract be made by the party himself in an informal and voidable manner, he may in a more formal manner confirm and render it valid; and in that event it will take effect, as between the parties, from the original making. To make a valid confirmation, the party must be apprised of, his rights, and where there has been a fraud in the transaction, he must be award of it, and intend to confirm his contract. Vide 1 Ball & Beatty, 353; 2 Scho. & Lef. 486; 12 Ves. 373; 1 Ves. Jr. 215; Newl. Contr. 496; 1 Atk. 301; 8 Watts. R. 280.
     3. - 2. Lord Coke defines a confirmation of an estate, to be "a conveyance of an estate or right in esse, whereby a voidable estate is made sure and unavoidable; or where a particular estate is increased."
     4. The first part of this definition may be illustrated by the following case, put by Littleton, Sec. 516; where a person lets land to another for the term of his life, who lets the same to another for forty years, by force of which he is in possession; if the lessor for life confirms the estate of the tenant for years by deed, and afterwards the tenant for life dies, during the term; this deed will operate as a confirmation of the term for years.. As to the latter branch of the definition; whenever a confirmation operates by way of increasing the estate, it is similar in every respect to a release that operates by way of enlargement, for there must be privity of estate, and proper words of limitation. The proper technical words of a confirmation are, ratify and confirm; although it is usual and prudent to insert also the words given and granted. Watk. Prin. Convey. chap. vii.
     5. A confirmation does not strengthen a void estate. Confirmatio est nulla, ubi donum precedens est invalidum, et ubi donatio nulla est nec valebit confirmatio. For confirmation may make a voidable or defeasible estate good, but cannot operate on an estate void in law. Co. Litt. 295. The canon law agrees with this rule, and hence the maxim, qui confirmat nihil dat. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 3, c. 6, n. 476. Vide Vin. Ab. h.t.; Com. Dig. 11. t.; Ayliffe's Pand. *386; 1 Chit. Pr. 315; 3 Gill & John. 290; 3 Yerg. R. 405; Co. Litt. 295; Gilbert on Ten. 75; 1 Breese's R. 236; 9 Co. 142, a; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2067-9.
     6. An infant is said to confirm his acts performed during infancy, when, after coming to full age, be expressly approves of them, or does acts from which such confirmation way be implied. Sec Ratification.

References in periodicals archive ?
One of the final questions to be addressed in the program deals with the confirmands' growth in their knowledge of God and their relationship with God at this time in their lives.
As part of the ceremony the confirmands were asked to face the congregation at which time members of the congregation welcomed the confirmands and promised to renew their covenant to fully participate in the ministries of the church with their prayers, presence, gifts and service.
This creates the incongruous possibility of a laying on of hands presided over by two different ministers of confirmation for two different sets of confirmands (an ACC bishop for the Anglicans and an ELCIC pastor for the Lutherans) in the same liturgy in the same congregation, followed by a single eucharistic celebration presided over by one celebrant.
By the second year, confirmands have long since discovered the hiatus between this and the prevailing values of our world; and they begin to ask about -- and often to smile over -- the distance from reality, or at least the "strangeness", of the moral orientations derived from the biblical message.
For example, years later, at confirmation services at Temple Beth-El Frisch prohibited his confirmands; from wearing jewelry or watches given to them as confirmation gifts.
Four out of five confirmands are State Church members.
service is also the Witnessing Service for confirmands.
Right: Saskatchewan Bishop David Irving and Masasi Bishop James Almasi bless confirmands.
I remember at our Confirmation, when I was about 11, he stood at the door of the church after Mass and greeted the confirmands. "The hope of the church!" he announced to each of us as we filed out, but the kid in front of me was upset because he thought the bishop called him the dope of the church.
(65) Provision had been made in church canons for those baptized as infants to proceed to the privileges and responsibilities of adult membership through the process of confirmation, a process that was supposedly secured by episcopal verification of the confirmands' grasp of the faith.