resolution

(redirected from Conflict resolution)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

Resolution

The official expression of the opinion or will of a legislative body.

The practice of submitting and voting on resolutions is a typical part of business in Congress, state legislatures, and other public assemblies. These bodies use resolutions for two purposes. First, resolutions express their consensus on matters of public policy: lawmakers routinely deliver criticism or support on a broad range of social issues, legal rights, court opinions, and even decisions by the Executive Branch. Second, they pass resolutions for internal, administrative purposes. Resolutions are not laws; they differ fundamentally in their purpose. However, under certain circumstances resolutions can have the effect of law.

In all legislative bodies, the process leading to a resolution begins with a lawmaker making a formal proposal called a motion. The rules of the legislative body determine how much support must be given to the motion before it can be put to a general vote. The rules also specify what number of votes the resolution must attract to be passed. If successful it becomes the official position of the legislative body.

As a spontaneous expression of opinion, a resolution is intended to be timely and to have a temporary effect. Typically resolutions are used when passage of a law is unnecessary or unfeasible. In many cases relevant laws already exist. The resolution merely asserts an opinion that lawmakers want to emphasize. Thus, for example, state and federal laws already criminalize illicit drugs, but lawmakers have frequently passed resolutions decrying illegal drug use. Political frustration sometimes leads lawmakers to declare their opposition to laws that they cannot change. Additionally, resolutions are common in times of emergency. War commonly brings resolutions in support of the nation's armed forces and the president (who, at other times, can be the subject of critical resolutions).

When resolutions are mere expressions of opinion, they differ fundamentally from laws. In essence, laws are intended to permanently direct and control matters applying to persons or issues in general; moreover, they are enforceable. By contrast, resolutions expressing the views of lawmakers are limited to a specific issue or event. They are neither intended to be permanent nor to be enforceable. Nor do they carry the weight of court opinions. In a certain respect, they resemble the opinions expressed by a newspaper on its editorial page, but they are nonetheless indicative of the ideas and values of elected representatives and, as such, commonly mirror the outlook of voters.

In addition to delivering statements for public consumption, resolutions also play an important role in the administration of legislatures. Lawmakers pass resolutions to control internal rules on matters such as voting and conduct. Typically legislatures also use them to conduct housekeeping: resolutions can thank a member for service to the legislature or criticize him or her for disservice. The latter form of resolution is known as censure, a rarely used formal process by which the legislature as a whole votes on whether to denounce a member for misdeeds.

Either house of a legislature can issue its own resolutions. When both houses adopt the same motion, it is called a joint resolution. Besides carrying the greater force of unanimity, the joint resolution also has a specific legal value in state and federal government. When such a resolution has been approved by the president or a chief executive—or passed with the president's approval—it has the effect of law. In some states a joint resolution is treated as a bill. It can become a law if it is properly passed and signed by the chief executive officer. In Congress a related form of action is the concurrent resolution: it is passed in the form of a resolution of one house with the other house in agreement. Unlike a joint resolution, a concurrent resolution does not require the approval of the president.

Cross-references

Congress of the United States; Legislation.

resolution

n. a determination of policy of a corporation by the vote of its board of directors. Legislative bodies also pass resolutions, but they are often statements of policy, belief or appreciation, and not always enactment of statutes or ordinances.

resolution

1 an important motion of an assembly or corporation or other body.
2 the name adopted by the (English) Solicitors' Family Law Association.

RESOLUTION. A solemn judgment or decision of a court. This word is frequently used in this sense, in Coke and some of the more ancient reporters. It also signifies an agreement to a law or other thing adopted by a legislature or popular assembly. Vide Dict. de Jurisp. h.t.

RESOLUTION, Civil law. The act by which a contract which existed and was good, is rendered null.
     2. Resolution differs essentially from rescission. The former presupposes the contract to have been valid, and it is owing to a cause posterior to the agreement that the resolution takes place; while rescission, on the contrary, supposes that some vice or defect annulled the contract from the beginning. Resolution may be by consent of the parties or by the decision of a competent tribunal; rescission must always be by the judgment of a court. 7 Troplong, de la Vente, n. 689; 7 Toull. 551; Dall. Dict. h.t.

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, they maintain reconciliatory mechanisms for conflict resolution. Indigenous African conflict reconciliatory strategies seek not only to put an end to hostility and conflict but also to reestablish harmonious relationships that lead to forgiveness and the psychical healing of individuals and groups.
But it should be used as inspiration to develop a workable model for interstate conflict resolution, one that appreciates the psychological and moral structures of this older and more humble form of justice.
According to Harris and Morrison (2003), it seems that since the last two decades, conflict resolution education has been getting impetus as an educational movement.
The paper sets the scene by providing a conceptual understanding of what African indigenous conflict resolution could mean.
Where Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding in Laos may frustrate some readers, however, is the author's limited engagement with the growing body of academic literature on Laos (Chapter 2, for instance, cites just six sources) and her consequent shallow analysis of the complex debates that surround many issues discussed in the book, such as ethnic identities, heritage preservation, socioeconomic development and the historicizing of nationalist narratives.
Kagiso project undertakes leadership training, peace education as well as conflict resolution trainings for schools and community leaders.
Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution in Corrections, Second Edition, by Thomas F.
Conflict resolution begins by recognizing which stories have captured participants, to their detriment as human beings.
Hamilton, a professional mediator and Zen practitioner and teacher, outlines a spiritual approach to conflict resolution. She argues that conflict is inevitable and discusses the importance of meditation, inner peace, intention, and attention and awareness, and explains how to deal with fear; understand three conflict styles (avoidance, accommodation, and competition); acknowledge multiple perspectives and speak up, listen, and see things through a third-person perspective; negotiate; use conflict as a creative opportunity; reframe thoughts; give and receive feedback; deal with hidden perspectives; working through conflicts over worldview; and have compassion.
With little support from teachers in managing conflict, middle school students often rely on their own and/or peer conflict resolution skills and orientations (O'Connell, Pepler, & Craig, 1999).
High profile episodes of school violence across the United States have increased concern over violence in schools and have made administrators aware that conflict resolution skills need to become a fundamental part of a school curriculum (Asherman, 2002).
Colonel Caraccilo then maintains that ten additional categories dedicated to conflict resolution, instead of only the six which address war termination, should also be used by nations during initial planning phases to include: nation building, economic development, humanitarian relief, and establishing democratic nations just to name a few.

Full browser ?