In summary, our data demonstrate that intrinsic fluorescence and quenching may be confounding variables
in fluorescence-based screening of natural products; thus, it would be prudent to include an evaluation of these properties in fluorometric assay protocols.
Additional efforts were made to control for some of the possible confounding variables
to identify independent predictors of satisfaction with the programs.
When these three potential confounding variables
are taken into account, they continued, it spotlights so-cioemotional processing deficits such as impaired FAR as "a fruitful area for research aimed at understanding, and hence reducing the risk of violence in psychosis.
These factors, together with different catheter sizes and haemostasis methods could possibly be confounding variables
to the occurrence of complications because these were not controlled in this study.
The methodology of Mendelian randomization uses the relationship of G with D, which presumably is unaffected by known confounding variables
, C, and unknown confounders, U, to evaluate the relationship of B with D.
Then, data on confounding variables
such as whether they had ever been told by a doctor that they had any of the chronic medical conditions listed (ie, arthritis, asthma, and osteoporosis) or whether they had had a hysterectomy, both ovaries removed, repair of prolapsed vagina, bladder or bowel, or menopause in the previous year, and whether they had a history of smoking were also extracted.
Knowing this, there are many confounding variables
that may have led to the altered potassium level such as dehydration from vomiting (leading to potassium loss through the stomach), that can cause bradycardia as decompensation from shock; or over-replacement of potassium-rich IV fluids that would lead to tachycardia from volume overload.
The study merely suggests that confounding variables
reveal a more nuanced tale.
Since IQ is strongly heredity, the parents' IQs, education and resulting social status could have been confounding variables
in previous studies.
These confounding variables
made up the study's "baseline," and are known to also influence the probability of elevated blood-lead levels.
In an examination of the formative context within which students' beliefs develop, it is necessary to identify some of the confounding variables
that complicate the relationship between the learning environment and students' beliefs.
The effect held up even after Mullainathan and Washington took into account possible confounding variables
such as age and level of information.