2012) 'Working through the Past in Bosnia and Northern Ireland: Truth, Reconciliation and the Constraints of Consociationalism
thus provides incentives to the 'ethnic leaders to escalate both the stakes and means of conflict' (Roeder et al: 2005, 56).
Most importantly, the CLC provided an early model of consociationalism
which enabled leaders from the various communities in Malaya to resolve intercommunal disputes amicably and which consequently became entrenched in the political system.
2) Ian Lustick, "Stability in Deeply Divided Societies: Consociationalism
The centripetalist approach developed as an alternative to consociationalism
1861, 1864-66 (2004) (comparing parallel concerns about consociationalism
and Shaw v.
Fearon and Laitin advocate that institutions based on consociationalism
are capable of in-group policing, but some scheme must be implemented to impede the institutionalized dominance of any particular group.
Lebanese Governing System and the Crisis of Consociationalism
These scholars suggested an alternative form of democracy, called consociationalism
or power-sharing between groups, always on the condition that the groups should not be defined and imposed by government (as in apartheid) but voluntarily formed.
Guy Peters, Consociationalism
, Corruption and Chocolate: Belgian Exceptionalism, 29 W.
He argues that confronting the realities of ethnicity has forced Nigeria to search for alternate models of democracy and national integration that can balance the interests of the three major ethnic groups within different institutions, although their reliance on consociationalism
has sometimes undermined the possibilities for the development of a democratic and inclusive nation-state.
has been called motivationally challenged, because it assumes that a majority ethnic group, where one exists, will be willing to exchange the complete power it could gain through the polls for a frustrating system of power sharing, including minority vetoes.