These include liturgical and talismanic uses of poetry; amplification (tashtir, takhmis) in which a base text is enframed or encased, and redirected, within an epigone's added lines; contrafaction
(muxAaradah), in which the rhyme, meter and key words of the original reverberate aurally and semantically in the imitator's homage, challenge, and cooptation of the original; manuscript and architectural inscription in which verbal aesthetics are brought into dialog with visual messaging; anthologizing, in which a selection is meticulously framed within a curated master-program; and song, in which the sonority of the poetic rhyme and meter is surrendered to a new aesthetics of musical performance.
Moreover Paloma offers convincing evidence that the men who sing this contrafaction
are aware of its source and its original lyrics.
But it is DeYoung's delving into concepts developed in Arabic criticism itself, as in her use of the traditional concept of mu'aradha-a kind of poetic imitation which she translates into "contrafaction
"-that particularly deserves admiration.
Christopher Page has called attention to Tinctoris's striking treatment of his own reaction to music in terms of smell, notoriously the sense that affects the mind and body most immediately and is least susceptible to the intellect.(47) On the other hand, Luther's famously lighthearted vindication of the contrafaction
of sacred words to profane melodies -- `Why should the Devil have all the good tunes?' -- shows he did not accept that secular music itself had an intrinsically bad influence on the hearer, but believed it was the intellect, by means of sacred or profane words, that mediated the song to the soul, to good or in effect.
Note, however, the discussion in PMLHA, 149-52, where I have changed my views on the relationship of the Blondel lyric and its presumed contrafactions
of needs are cases in which needs are related to their opposites in alternating phases.