chain gang

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chain gang

(US) a group of convicted prisoners chained together, usually while doing hard labour.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006
References in periodicals archive ?
has made a contract whereby a portion of the convict labor at Stillwater will be employed by them.
Although the ASRG convict project has taken a broad interest in convict archaeology and opportunities to synthesize some of the outputs of professional archeology, particular foci have been the identification of the location and nature of the wider range of non-institutional sites, the study of convict labor, industrial places and landscapes, convicts as a colonizing force, as well as evidence for the transitions from convict through to emancipist and free society.
If these unfree labor systems deserve a place in the book, surely numerous others did too, such as convict labor arrangements, certain forms of military conscription, or modern human trafficking.
But the end of convict leasing did not signal the reform of the Southern penal system; instead, Southern states found an even more cost effective means of exploiting convict labor. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, Southern states invested little in infrastructural development, but growing a market economy required an adequate transportation system.
The Colonel's nemesis, Bill Fetters, has a firm hold on the convict labor contracts created by this new middle class to control the freed slaves.
The Walsh-Healy Act of 1936 "banned convict labor on federal procurement contracts in the manufacturing, production, or furnishing of any materials, supplies, articles or equipment used in government contracts where the amount thereof exceeds $10,000." (2) In 1940, Congress added further restrictions with the Sumners-Ashurst Act that made it a federal crime to "knowingly transport convict-made goods in interstate commerce for private uses, regardless of the laws in the states" (Orlando, 1967).
Merely witnessing Loomis's suffering is sufficient to recognize the compelling symbolic presence of the white man on stage: "He represents the evil that takes away all the potential identified with black men, whether that evil historically took the form of slavery, sharecropping, or convict labor as a result of being jailed without any semblance of due process" (Harris 56).
The General Board of Pension and Health Benefits of The United Methodist Church of Evanston, Ill., and other share holders are asking Wal-Mart's board of directors to prepare a document stating that the company won't purchase goods from suppliers who "manufacture items using forced labor, convict labor or child labor, or who fail to comply with fundamental workplace rights ..."
Convicted criminals often faced corporal punishments but usually were sentenced to convict labor as well.
Convict Labor, Executive Order 11755, states, "The development of the occupational and educational skills of prison inmates is essential to their rehabilitation and to their ability to make an effective return to free society.
Even though the efforts of ex-slaves and other abolitionists made it impossible to reinstall legalized chattel slavery, racialized labor arrangements persisted in the form of convict labor. Convict labor built the post-Civil War infrastructure in the U.S., not just in the South but also throughout the U.S., and the struggle to determine how free unfree labor would be continued.