County


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County

A political subdivision of a state, the power and importance of which varies from one state to another.

A county is distinguishable from a city or Municipal Corporation, since a municipal corporation has a dual character, both public and private, while a county is established by the state and is considered to be an agency thereof. Through home rule, a municipality may make certain decisions on matters of local concern, while a county is controlled by the state and does the work of state administration.

In the state of Louisiana, a state political subdivision is known as a parish. Comparable to counties, parishes have no independent existence apart from the state but possess only such authority as the state grants them.

Status

The state constitution determines the procedures for the formation of a county. Certain states require a specific minimum size population or property value before a county is created. A county government that is too small can be either completely abolished or subject to a consolidation plan designed to merge urban and rural areas. Conversely, a county that becomes too large or diverse following an extended period of development can be divided by the state to form a new county.

The principle of Sovereign Immunity permits states to refuse to allow anyone to sue them. This doctrine protects counties from legal action to the same extent that the states they exist in are so protected. States and counties can only be sued where state law specifically permits it.

Boundaries

Ordinarily, the boundaries of a county are set by the state legislature. If a boundary is marked by a stream or river, the county extends to the center and remains there from the time of the county's creation, even if the stream subsequently changes course. When a lake is the boundary, the county line ordinarily extends to the bank or the low water mark. A boundary that is on the ocean extends to the three-mile limit offshore.

State law provides for the revision of the boundaries of counties. Certain state statutes proscribe the creation of a new county line too close to an already existing county seat. Ordinarily voters can petition for the expansion or division of a county where population and commercial growth justify it. Although citizens have no absolute right to prevent the alteration of county lines by state legislatures, the legislature cannot change boundaries for the purpose of diluting the voting power of some of the citizens in an election.

The state retains power to designate special districts for purposes of irrigation, flood control, fire protection, or library services, which do not affect the makeup of existing counties.

Government

The government of a county is located at the county seat, a city or town where court sessions are held and duties are performed by county officers. The county board, comprised of public officials who are elected or appointed to serve on it, is the body that manages the government of the county. Other county officials include sheriffs, clerks, surveyors, and commissioners responsible for certain areas such as highways and Human Rights.

The state gives counties express authority to purchase and sell property and to raise funds from taxes, licenses, or bond issues. Counties have state-granted authority to make provisions for public health, safety, welfare, and morals of its residents through the enactment and enforcement of ordinances and regulations. The state, however, has the authority to make the decision whether to create courts on the county level or to use counties to designate intrastate judicial districts.

See: province, region, venue

COUNTY. A district into which a state is divided.
     2. The United States are generally divided into counties; counties are divided into townships or towns.
     3. In Pennsylvania the division of the province into three Counties, viz. Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, was one of the earliest acts of William Penn, the original proprietary. There is no printed record of this division, or of the original boundaries of these counties. Proud says it was made about the year 1682. Proud's Hist. vol. 1 p. 234 vol. 2, p. 258.
     4. In some states, as Illinois; 1 Breese, R. 115; a county is considered as a corporation, in others it is only a quasi corporation. 16 Mass. R. 87; 2 Mass. R. 644 7 Mass. R. 461; 1 Greenl. R. 125; 3 Greenl. R. 131; 9 Greenl. R. 88; 8 John. R. 385; 3 Munf. R. 102. Frequent difficulties arise on the division of a county. On this subject, see 16 Mass. R. 86 6 J. J. Marsh. 147; 4 Halst. R. 357; 5 Watts, R. 87 1 Cowen, R. 550; 6 Cowen, R. 642; Cowen, R. 640; 4 Yeates, R. 399 10 Mass. Rep. 290; 11 Mass. Rep. 339.
     5. In the English law this word signifies the same as shire, county being derived from the French and shire from the Saxon. Both these words signify a circuit or portion of the realm, into which the whole land is divided, for the better government thereof, and the more easy administration of justice. There is no part of England that is not within some county, and the shire-reve, (sheriff) originally a yearly officer, was the governor of the county. Four of the counties of England, viz. Lancaster, Chester, Durham and Ely, were called counties Palatine, which were jurisdictions of a peculiar nature, and held by, especial charter from the king. See stat. 27 H. VIII. c. 25.

References in periodicals archive ?
Part of what has helped to improve the image of Catholics in the area are the social services provided by Catholic groups such as the Glenmary Home Missioners, who have initiated programs like Meals on Wheels and the Glenmary Farm, a retreat center that houses students and adults who come to Lewis County to volunteer their time on projects like home construction and visiting the elderly and disabled.
County officials say their application process is complex, and that they're taking their time in handing out the funding because they want to make sure it is spent right.
The log linear model used for spatial smoothing assumed that the number of disease cases in the i-th county, [n.sub.i], has a mean, [P.sub.i][[lambda].sub.i], where [P.sub.i], is the denominator for the rates and
"We had no way of knowing whether there was a problem on their end or whether they were ignoring it." The county does have "a very strict procedure we must follow that includes 12 notifications.
Wirral Girls Grammar: county selection: Jenna Hughes, U-16; Amy Smith,U-18; Jenny Pritchard,U-18; Faye Coyle,U-16; Jayne Simpson, U-16; Rebecca Jones, Sarah Edwards, Sarah Wallace, county,national; U-14,U-15& U-16 teams, county champions; U-18 team,county champions,NW representatives,National Schools' tournament, fifth nat.
The Danville RMA, the City of Danville, and the non-RMA portion of Pittsylvania County, excluding the small area around Hurt.
Georgia: Brantley County, Bryan County, Camden County, Chatham County, Effingham County, Glynn County, Liberty County, Long County, McIntosh County, Pierce County, Wayne County
The quake's intensity, which gauges the actual effect of the tremor, registered a 5 in Hualien County and a 2 in Nantou County and Taichung City.
Along with Wayne County, Michigan, the highest potential annual gross rental yields among counties with a population of at least 1 million were Cuyahoga County (Cleveland), Ohio (12.0 percent); Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (10.9 percent); Cook County (Chicago), Illinois (9.7 percent); and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (9.4 percent).
The first sitting of the Second Kakamega County Assembly was held on September 7, 2017 following the August General Elections.
He assures the county health team of his willingness to collaborate with them so as to adequately address the health needs of the people of Margibi County.

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