An important feature of the code of work rules, with respect to this study, is that, once a rule which is to the liking of a craft union
is written into a labor-management agreement or has become hallowed merely by long practice if instituted unilaterally by management, it assumes the aura of untouchable tradition in the union's view and becomes sacrosanct, and management dare not lightly suggest at the bargaining table that it be abrogated.
Many state-based craft unions
, especially in manufacturing, opted to merge in light of a shrinking membership base produced, at least in part, by industry decline, and technological redundancy.
Thus, relative to one another, the service sector union had the most usable website, followed by the public sector and manufacturing union sites--which were not significantly different from one another--with the craft union
having the lowest usability scores.
As I told you recently, we will be meeting in January with our four largest craft unions
to discuss our economic challenges.
The 1934 amended Railway Labor Act, for example, provided that grievance complaints could only be brought to adjustment boards by established craft unions
, effectively leaving African American railway men outside the industry's arbitration system.
Relations between the management in Thomson Newspapers, of which The Western Mail was then a part, and the craft unions
had deteriorated sharply.
The Microsoft-inflected WashTech (www.washtech.org) and the Australian IT Workers Alliance (www.itworkers-alliance.org) are open-source unions that are closer to craft unions
or occupational associations.
Our "production regime"--the political apparatuses, or governance, of production--could best be described as a partial "industrial democracy." Relatively non-confrontational relationships existed between management and ten strong craft unions
organized into a Metal Trades Council.
It is also home to many of the city's hottest night-clubs, coffee houses, art galleries, restaurants, as well as many craft unions
and social service organizations.
While the seedy underbelly of Hollywood has never been that obscure, it loomed closest in the 1940s, when the Conference of Studio Unions (CSU), a federation of film-industry craft unions
comprised mostly of painters and carpenters, went on strike citing the "draconian working conditions" studios imposed upon workers.
Membership in the once-powerful craft unions
of decades past has been shrunk by changes in technology and delivery.
Although federal control had solidified the power of operating craft unions
, African Americans managed to hold their own in railroad employment.