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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
As described in this project, DNA construct containing Fc portion of IgG fused to Foxp3 was designed in pIRES-EGFP plasmid.
Gen9 has developed unique, next-generation technologies for synthesizing and assembling DNA constructs for use across the broad application areas encompassed by the field of synthetic biology.
To advance the application of DNA constructs in novel applications, Gen9 has sponsored the G-Prize, a contest open to researchers working at academic or public-benefit organizations.
Protein Potential's Products and Services group provides high quality recombinant proteins and DNA constructs to corporate, government, and academic clients.
According to the company, the patent includes claims that cover its synthetic consensus HPV antigens and DNA constructs and vaccines that include these antigens, including its cervical dysplasia/cancer vaccine, VGX-3100.
Idera's gene-silencing oligonucleotides (GSOs) are single-stranded RNA or DNA constructs with two exposed 3'-ends which are complementary to targeted mRNA sequences of therapeutic interest.
DNA constructs encoding a chimeric T-cell receptor and a method of making a redirected T cell expressing a chimeric T cell receptor by electroporation using naked DNA encoding the receptor are also disclosed.
The inaugural G-Prize contest, conceived and exclusively sponsored by Gen9, was launched to foster creative and innovative approaches for using synthetic DNA constructs to advance industries including chemical and enzyme production, biofuels, pharmaceuticals, and even data storage.
In addition, the company claimed the artificial DNA constructs, which the company is creating, were specifically developed with the technical textiles market in mind.
The compositions are DNA constructs that comprise novel arrangements of T-DNA molecules containing genes of interest, positive selectable marker genes, and conditional lethal genes.
Gen9 has developed a unique technology to synthesize DNA constructs and has used it to build a novel fabrication capability for next-generation gene synthesis known as the BioFab([R]) tool.
Idera's gene-silencing oligonucleotides (GSOs) are single-stranded RNA or DNA constructs with two exposed 3'-ends that are complementary to targeted mRNA sequences of therapeutic interest.