dna

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Related to DNA double helix: DNA replication

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Doodle on shows a cartoon illustration of Franklin looking at the DNA double helix, alluding to her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA, which in turn led to the discovery of its distinctive structure, the report added.
An interdisciplinary team from Columbia University that includes electrical engineers from Columbia's Engineering School, together with researchers from the University's departments of Physics and Chemistry show how, for the first time, transistors can be used to detect the binding of the two halves of the DNA double helix with the DNA tethered to the transistor sensor.
DNA's chemical components confer on it a powerful versatility, rooted in the forces that bind one strand of the DNA double helix to the other.
Pupils at the Dixie Grammar School are making a DNA double helix, while mythical animals are being created by youngsters at Market Bosworth High School.
Thirty years later it is an unexpected pleasure to be invited to join the chorus, indeed the symphony, celebrating the golden anniversary of the DNA double helix and the sequencing of a complete human genome and to reflect upon how deciphering the structure of DNA was fundamental to the fields of mutagenesis and genetic toxicology and more recently to the emerging field of toxicogenomics.
James Watson, co-discoverer of the DNA Double Helix, as predicting that Folkman would ``cure cancer in two years.
In cell division, each DNA double helix would separate into two strands, and each strand would build up its complementary strand on itself; an adenine fitting over every thymine on the strand, a thymine over every adenine, a guanine over every cytosine, and a cytosine over every guanine.
In its normal form, a DNA double helix does not act as a diode.
One of the surprising things that comes out of this study is that we also see that the enzyme has to unwind the DNA double helix.
Rosalind Franklin's work was important in Watson and Crick's elucidation of the DNA double helix, but it is not correct that they never credited her.