DNA

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Related to DNA glycosylases: AP endonuclease

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
All above results suggested that both the SMUG1 and TDG proteins exhibit DNA glycosylase activity towards DNA containing a T:8BrG mispair.
These results suggested that MUTYH protein exhibits DNA glycosylase activity towards DNA containing an A:8BrG mispair.
coli DNA glycosylase MutY, a homologue of MUTYH, and 8BrG-containing oligonucleotides in a UV cross-linking analysis [34].
Our DNA cleavage activity assay, which included a time-course assay and an assay using various amounts of DNA glycosylase proteins (Figures 2 and 3), clearly demonstrated the excisional activity of both SMUG1 and TDG towards T mispaired with 8BrG.
The previous studies showed that GSRd had a neuroprotective function in ischemic stroke.[sup][10],[11] In the present study, we investigated the effects of GSRd on the expression of DNA glycosylase NEILs in a rat MCAO model.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized form; NAD [sup]+) repletion was reported to confer neuroprotection against ischemic cell death in rat primary neuronal cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation by increasing BER activity.[sup][17] Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic, was reported to enhance repair activity in the thalamus after focal cortical infarction in hypertensive rats by attenuating DNA damage through increased DNA glycosylase OGG1 expression, which initiated the BER pathway.[sup][18]
Endonuclease VIII-like 3 (Neil3) DNA glycosylase promotes neurogenesis induced by hypoxia-ischemia.
Korvald et al., "Sculpting of DNA at abasic sites by DNA glycosylase homolog mag2," Structure, vol.
Adaptation to alkylation resistance involves the induction of a DNA glycosylase. Nature, 296(1):775-779.
Seeberg, "Human DNA glycosylases of the bacterial Fpg/MutM superfamily: an alternative pathway for the repair of 8-oxoguanine and other oxidation products in DNA," Nucleic Acids Research, vol.
Wallace, "The Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases: substrates, structures, and search for damage," Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science, vol.
Wallace, "Neil3, the final frontier for the DNA glycosylases that recognize oxidative damage," Mutation Research, vol.