DNA

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Related to DNA gyrase: Topoisomerase, Quinolones

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Baranowski, "Mechanism of quinolone inhibition of DNA gyrase. Appearance of unique norfloxacin binding sites in enzyme-DNA complexes," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Multiple modes of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase activity revealed by force and torque, Nat Struct Mol Biol 2007; 14 (4): 264-271.
With detailed methods and protocols, contributors address computational strategies, a number of assay methods (for DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, bacterial RNA polymerase, bacterial ribosome biogenesis and inhibitors targeting specific translational steps), high-throughput peptide deformylase inhibitor screening, penicillin-binding protein assay methods, methods for assessing the structure and function of cationic antimicrobial peptides, and bacterial efflux pump inhibitors.
The 3-carboxylate and 4-carbonyl groups of the quinolone moiety are important for therapeutic action since they bind DNA gyrase, the main intracellular target of the fluoroquinolones.
Ohemeng and colleagues previously detected no inhibitory activity from galangin against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase (Ohemeng et al., 1993; Hilliard et al., 1995), but the flavonol may have activity against S.
The main mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolone agents are alterations on DNA gyrase subunits and reduced penetration associated with decreased outer membrane protein production.
Fluoroquinolones act on topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase. Four subunits of topoisomerase IV exist: two C (ParC) and two E (ParE) subunits encoded by parC and parE genes.
An Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I mutant has a compensatory mutation that alters two residues between functional domains of the DNA gyrase A protein.
We have recently demonstrated how clinically-utilised fluoroquinolone antibiotics (global sales ~$8 bn) inhibit DNA gyrase from Mtb, an essential topoisomerase necessary for DNA replication and maintenance of DNA supercoiling.
Yamagishi, Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Series of Potent DNA Gyrase Inhibitors Pyrazole Derivatives, J.