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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Construction of poplar (Pupulus tremula) chromosome 1-specific DNA library by using a micro-dissection technique.
Finally, one might be interested in average gene diversity in the genome and choose random probes from a DNA library.
The completion of the Barcode Wales DNA library was announced in the journal PLoS ONE and all of the DNA barcodes are freely available as part of the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD).
The ECA wishes to acquire DNA library preparation system, the associated consumables and maintenance.
These agreements will broaden the availability of Rubicon's DNA library preparation products, used with Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) systems, and the company sees China as a major source of sales, said chief executive James Koziarz.
Many NGS sample-preparation protocols require DNA library amplification by PCR, which can often introduce amplification bias.
They extracted a bone sample from the pelvis of the ice mummy, and with the aid of the revolutionary SOLiD sequencing technology from the "Life Technologies" company created a DNA library, which contains by far the largest DNA data set ever recovered from the iceman.
The ADLIB Project, which stands for The Acute Coronary Event DNA LIBrary, was launched last October.
The workflow uses the Agilent Bravo liquid-handling platform to automate DNA library prep and in-solution enrichment.
This is due to the fact that different sequencing techniques have different bias in generation of data; We need a sequencer which minimizes homopolymer prone sequencing errors and also limits data-handling time in avoiding denoising as known from 454 and Ion torrent / Proton based technologies; For larger projects (transcriptomics) we need a sequencer with outputs of up to 120 Gb per run; We need high quality scores with at least 75 % of bases with Q scores > 30; Compatibility with low input library preparations (like Ultra DNA Library Prep kit from NEB or Nextera XT kit for compatibility) with existing lab equipment and work-flow The Illumina NextSeq 500 system is the only sequencer on the market meeting these requirements.
The focus is on automated methods for the NEBNext Ultra DNA library preparation kit for Illumina sequencers.