DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The data reveal synthesis bias in the unselected DNA library. Ideally, the "random" region of the unselected library will contain an equal proportion of the four nucleobases; in our library the random region contained 24.3 [+ or -] 0.5% G; 23.8 [+ or -] 0.2% A; 27.4 [+ or -] 0.3% T; 24.4 [+ or -] 0.4% C.
For DNA library construction, we used the Paired-End DNA Sample Preparation Kit (Illumina) and 5-30 ng plasma DNA for each case.
It has one serious drawback, in that it requires the construction of a DNA library, involving shearing, end repair, polyA tailing, and ligation, which can be very time-consuming.
Importantly, the DNA library was harvested from the same organ as the tumour.
Methods that direct the project include, but not limited to, the setting and optimization of the barcode sequencing technique, DNA library preparation, fluorescence microscopy for cellular imaging along with FACS analysis.
The FITC-labeled DNA library was measured as the background binding, and a threshold was determined based on the background fluorescence.
Further analysis such as DNA library and colony hybridization, using specific probe is now being done to isolate complete gene.
Contract awarded for Invitation to quote for a 2 year term contract to supply dna library preparation kits, Multiplex oligos, Library quantitation kit and dna fragmentation enzymes for next generation sequencing
Our approach was a bit like probing into the DNA library to determine sequences.
Aptamers isolated from the modified library were strikingly different from those derived from an all-natural DNA library (47) at the level of the primary and the secondary structure.
Contract notice: Providing a dna library preparation system, the associated consumables and maintenance.
The gene was cloned from a practical acetic acid bacterium belonging to the genus Gluconacetobacter by a method for obtaining a gene having a growth-promoting function in acetic acid-containing medium from the chromosomal DNA library of the acetic acid bacterium.