dna

(redirected from DNA library)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Rubicon Is Expanding Worldwide Distribution Channels for Its Growing Line of DNA Library Prep Kits In Advance of Upcoming New Product Launches--
today announced that it haspartnered with three life sciences distributors in China to expand availability of its DNA library preparation products, including its ThruPLEX[sup.
James Koziarz, PhD, CEO of Rubicon Genomics, commented, "The advantages of our new DNA library preparation kits for use with Illumina NGS systems are illustrated by the fact that our ThruPLEX-FD Prep Kit has been cited in four Nature publications in the past six months alone.
The system provides gene expression analysis, DNA library management, microarray production, hybridization, microarray imaging, microarray analysis and results reporting.
CLTH009 08/23/2001 10:38 r f bc-MI-Genomic-Solutions (ANN ARBOR) Custom DNA Library Supplier Relies on Genomic Solutions Library Management System
This is due to the fact that different sequencing techniques have different bias in generation of data; We need a sequencer which minimizes homopolymer prone sequencing errors and also limits data-handling time in avoiding denoising as known from 454 and Ion torrent / Proton based technologies; For larger projects (transcriptomics) we need a sequencer with outputs of up to 120 Gb per run; We need high quality scores with at least 75 % of bases with Q scores > 30; Compatibility with low input library preparations (like Ultra DNA Library Prep kit from NEB or Nextera XT kit for compatibility) with existing lab equipment and work-flow The Illumina NextSeq 500 system is the only sequencer on the market meeting these requirements.
Product Line Includes ThruPLEX-seq DNA Library Preparation Kits and Rubicon's Newest Product--ThruPLEX Plasma-seq Kits that Enable Liquid Biopsies from Cell-Free DNA in Plasma--
The NEXTflex Pre- and Post- Capture Combo Kit (Agilent SureSelectXT2 Compatible) incorporates the NEXTflex[TM] Rapid DNA-Seq Kit, a rapid Illumina-compatible DNA library prep kit which produces libraries for upstream target capture from as little as 100 ng of DNA in only two hours.
Last week Francisco Brizida, president of the Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, where the DNA library is held, said: "Technology now allows us to go further than years ago.
This approach utilizes very long (>120 bases) oligonucleotides complementary to all of the exons in the human genome to generate biotinylated RNA "baits" that are used to pull out the exon sequences from a sheared genomic DNA library that already contains sequencing adaptors.
Importantly, the DNA library was harvested from the same organ as the tumour.