DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Gene expression profiling: monitoring transcription and translation products using DNA microarrays and proteomics.
One of the early concerns about the use of DNA microarray in toxicology has been how to properly compare experiments that use a wide variety of commercial and proprietary platforms, protocols, and analysis methods.
Under that initiative, the company plans to boost the investigation and diagnosis business, which is based on bio tools including the high sensitivity DNA microarray 3D-Gene.
DNA microarray to monitor the expression of MACE-A genes.
"All of us at Mergen prefer to focus our resources on providing the highest quality DNA microarrays and services.
The institute's researchers have established a bacterial DNA microarray facility which is being used to produce DNA microarrays of the entire genomes of Campylobacter, E.
Development of a high density DNA microarray for investigation of microbial diversity in periodontal health and disease.
Pfizer's investment in Perlegen is further evidence of big pharma's commitment to pharmacogenomics and to DNA microarray technology and, specifically, to Affymetrix's platform.
A new Swedish study indicates that DNA microarray technology can help predict a breast-cancer patient's potential response to therapy.
The '729 patent covers methods and technologies for coupling optical waveguides with a DNA microarray used for performing biological operations and illuminating it at an angle that allows the size and complexity of the diagnostic instrument to be reduced.
In a DNA microarray, DNA sequences are printed on a microplate, with incubation of a labeled sample revealing which gene on the array is expressed in the sample and the level at which it is expressed.