dna

(redirected from DNA microarray)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Under that initiative, the company plans to boost the investigation and diagnosis business, which is based on bio tools including the high sensitivity DNA microarray 3D-Gene.
Although gene expression analysis, of which Affymetrix estimates it holds a 75%-80% share of the market, remains the most popular application for DNA microarrays, a new set of applications are rapidly gaining ground and spurring growth.
Fields: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of consumables by field (biotechnology, chemicals, clinical or hospital, defence, diagnostics, energy, environmental, food and drink, forensics, geology, government, healthcare, natural products, pharmaceuticals, research institutes, security and university) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
The use of DNA microarrays is central to the new functional genomic approach being developed by several research groups at the institute and will allow scientists to study the expression of all genes in a bacterium in a single experiment--4290 genes in the case of E.
DNA microarray hybridization analysis stands out for its simplicity, comprehensiveness, data consistency, and high throughput.
Fields: A breakdown of end-user practices in the use of software and databases (including software/database market brands or in-house) by field (biotechnology, chemicals, clinical or hospital, defence, diagnostics, energy, environmental, food and drink, forensics, geology, government, healthcare, natural products, pharmaceuticals, research institutes, security and university) in the conduct of PCR, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and disease biomarker studies.
Written for students and genetic researchers that employ DNA analysis for forensic science, this volume covers such topics as proper platforms for DNA microarray experiments, statistical analyses of tiling-path microarrays and clustering time-series gene expression data.
EG Microarray Killifish 750 is the world's first DNA microarray that has used killifish DNAs.
Despite the current environment of cautious pharmaceutical and biotech spending, the DNA microarray market is alive and well.
By contrast, Microarray Biochip Technology discusses the technology behind the major instruments and procedures used for DNA microarray analysis and is from Eaton, the publisher of BioTechniques.
A jury of eight decided that Affymetrix's process for making and using its GeneChip arrays infringes OGT's DNA microarray patent, number US 5,700,637.