DNA

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Related to DNA molecule: DNA replication, DNA structure

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
You use DNA profiling to examine the samples, analyzing 11 different markers along the DNA molecule. If the DNA of the moose found in the suspect's home matches that of the leg in the lab, you can positively conclude that the hunter shot the moose.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - biochemical replication of any isolated DNA molecule. An important analytical technique for identifying pathogens or preparing genetic diagnosis.
As the substrate becomes increasingly contaminated by adsorbates over time, the topographical measurements of the DNA molecule become difficult to obtain.
In turn, each DNA molecule consists of two long, coiled strands.
The DNA molecules in the chromosomes, which carried the information from parent to offspring, were buried deep in the cell nucleus, while the transfer RNA was in the cytoplasm.
The ability to use larger gaps for tunneling makes the manufacture of the device much easier and gives DNA molecules room to pass the electrodes, Lindsay added.
The four giant DNA molecules were too big to put into Escherichia coli bacteria, which the researchers had used to make copies of the DNA segments at each earlier stage.
Elinor Zerah-Harush, used the results of the experiment to construct a theoretical model of the DNA molecule inside the electric circuit.
Louis, MO) have patented a method for conferring tolerance to salt stress and drought stress in a monocot plant including transforming the monocot plant with an expression cassette comprising at least one ABRC unit, a minimal promoter, and a DNA molecule that increases tolerance to salt stress and drought stress in plants, wherein the at least one ABRC unit, the minimal promoter, and a DNA molecule are operably linked together to permit expression of the DNA molecule.
"If you could put a DNA molecule on a piece of graphite and read the sequence by looking at the bases, that would probably be faster than the methods that are currently employed.
Coiled up in each chromosome is a long, double-stranded DNA molecule. If you unravel all of the chromosomes in a single nucleus, you get a stretch of DNA about a meter (3 ft) long.
NIH will also provide USD 880,000 over two years to University of Pennsylvania for the development of a synthetic nanopore from graphene that will allow the identification of individual DNA bases without requiring to slow down the DNA molecule as it passes through a pore.