DNA

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Related to DNA polymerase: RNA polymerase, DNA replication

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
We also hypothesized that the rs372907618 SNP may not have interfered with the PCR amplification of the mismatched primer if the laboratory used a thermostable DNA polymerase that possessed 3' to 5' exonuclease activity.
Hence, in order to determine the binding mode of natural products against DNA polymerase [alpha], thirteen phenol-based and three furanocoumarinbased natural products isolated from P.
Comparison of DNA polymerase alpha and reverse transcriptase.
The question that whether Taq DNA polymerase gene can be directly applied to promote normal DNA replication in plant cells under heat stress, still needs to be answered.
However, as reported in the literature, the biggest limitation of AS-PCR was that allele-specific primers can often be nonspecifically extended by most DNA polymerases, even if there was a mismatch with the template at its 37-end, which resulted in false-positive results [14, 15].
Thus, if tested DNA polymerase is incapable to use some of modified nucleotides as a substrate, the formation of full 40 nucleotide duplex does not occur, which significantly facilitates the visualization of the results of PCR.
However, it should be noted that a study on the mutation spectra of GB-D DNA polymerase (commercially available as Deep Vent) found A x T [right arrow] G x C transitions to be the predominant mutation [28].
Hanaoka, "Translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase eta across oxidative products of guanine," Nucleic Acids Symposium Series, vol.
The discovery of the thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus (Taq) has brought the revolution in genetic engineering.
My colleagues and I generated a mouse strain that is mutated in the Polk gene (which encodes DNA polymerase K) and have sought to determine the 'cognitive' substrate for this enzyme.
herbaceum) of A genome, were found to be free of virus when screened by PCR and (Phi) 29 DNA polymerase.

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