DNA

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Related to DNA probe: PCR, DNA fingerprinting

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
No one has reported on comparisons between the DNA probes and the BANA Test in plaque samples taken after treatment as was done in the present study.
From this alignment, we designed two 19-bp DNA probes (H-680 and H-1425) that were specific to the Hematodinium 18S rRNA sequence (see Results).
Contemporary nucleic acid hybridization or DNA probe tests are commonly used in medicine to detect a variety of pathogens.
The digoxigenin-labeled B19 DNA probe was prepared by incorporating digoxigenin-labeled dUTP in a PCR reaction.
Riley of the University of Illinois, Peoria, and her colleagues reviewed all DNA probes for C.
Chlamydia was detected in 44 of 2,909 patients (1.5%) screened by combination DNA probe during gel months and 28 of 2,626 patients (1.1%) screened during water months.
KEY WORDS: Venerupis (Tapes) philippinarum, juvenile clam infection, Perkinsus sp., DNA probe, in situ hybridization
False positive result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA probe hybridization with a Mycobacterium terrae isolate [letter].
BioResearch Ireland and the three scientists are also planning to market and develop the DNA probe technology.
"This new DNA probe might then be used to screen patients for genetic diseases or to test for sensitivities to certain drugs.
2,995,759, covering ImClone's Repair Chain Reaction (RCR) DNA probe technology.
A fluorescent or chemiluminescent tag is typically added to the DNA probe. The tag gives telltale evidence the probe has bound itself to the target DNA.

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