DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases UV-induced Cox-2 expression and inflammation, enhances DNA repair, and decreases mutagenesis in hairless mice.
DNA repair genes polymorphisms in multiple myeloma: no association with XRCCl (Arg399Gln) polymorphism, but the XRCC4 (VNTR in intron 3 and G-1394T) and XPD (Lys75lGln) polymorphisms is associated with the disease in Turkish patients.
The daughter has similar DNA repair array gene expression profile with the mother.
Evidence suggests a person's DNA repair capability can modulate colon cancer risk.
Genetic susceptibility is related to genetic polymorphisms of various genes, including those involved in DNA repair pathway.
The DNA repair-centered pathway is supported by experimental studies documenting the following: (1) activation of DNA repair functions following HSV1 infection of nonneuronal cells; (2) the requirement for activation of DNA repair proteins in lytic HSV1 replication; (3) failure of DNA repair protein activation following HSV1 infection of neurons; and (4) reactivation of latent HSV1 from neurons following excess of DNA damage.
Taking into consideration that DNA replication can generate up to 10 double strand breaks per cell cycle, it is not surprising that cells have developed multiple mechanisms for DNA repair.
Even with defective FA DNA repair, the stem cells retained their ability to transform into different tissues.
These proteins depleted BRCA1 in the cultured neurons, suggesting that they may be an important cause of the faulty DNA repair seen in Alzheimer brains.
These are proto-oncogenes (promote growth), tumour suppressor genes (inhibit growth), apoptotic genes (regulate programmed cell death) and DNA repair genes.
Objective: The polymorphism in codon 399 of the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene may subtly alter structure of DNA repair enzymes and modulate the repair capacity.