dna

(redirected from DNA repair)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Formulation and clinical evaluation of DNA repair and immune enhancing nutritional supplements.
Hence, it is not surprising that both lifespan and DNA repair have been associated to redox balance and serum thiols (Pero et al.
Our present set of data on large groups of AD patients and matched control subjects considerably extends earlier findings and confirms the existence of a DNA repair defect in familial, but not in sporadic AD.
What intrigues us is that only a handful of favorable genetic changes were required to enable dramatically accelerated DNA repair, which is how the E.
Through this work, the research team identified three genes responsible for a multi-protein complex, called SMC5/SMC6/MAGE, which regulates DNA repair and the control of cell division.
Heyer likens this self-correcting ability of the DNA repair system to driving in a modern city where u-turns and two-way streets make it easy to rectify a wrong turn.
As mutations/polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are associated with variations in the repair efficiency of DNA damage, this repair deficit may eventually predispose an individual to cancer risk, birth defects and a reduced life span (6,7).
Although this outstanding DNA repair mechanism is ever-present, DNA deteriorates with aging.
However, many studies support the role of As in altering one or more DNA repair processes [World Health Organization (WHO) 2001].
MGMT normally plays a role in DNA repair, but when the promoter region near the MGMT gene acquires a group of methyl molecules, the gene switches off and MGMT production stops.
This comprehensive and timely reference focuses on the translational and clinical use of DNA repair as a target area for the development of diagnostic biomarkers and the enhancement of cancer treatment.
Objective: DNA repair pathways evolved as an intricate network that senses DNA damage and resolves it in order to minimise genetic lesions and thus preventing tumour formation.