DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Examples of successful projects include large- scale machine learning for pharmaceutical companies, DNA sequencing software for hospitals and pharmaceutical companies, assay image feature extraction, advanced biostatistics and data analytics, and even multi-physics space weather simulations.
The future of DNA sequencing. Nature 2017;550: 179-81.
In China, the upstream sectors of DNA sequencing industry are virtually monopolized by foreign giants.
Resuspension of DNA sequencing reaction products in agarose increases sequence quality on an automated sequencer.
In 2009, researchers began using newly developed DNA sequencing technologies that go be yond the methods used in the Human Genome Project, collectively referred to as "next-generation" (or NextGen) DNA sequencing methods.
Since its inception, the EGP has focused on generating nearly complete genotype information using targeted DNA sequencing of genes across 90 PDR samples and has provided substantial insights in the variability of the human genome (Livingston et al.
However, instrument sales declined in the DNA Sequencing and "Other" segments.
About Pyrosequencing AB Pyrosequencing AB develops, manufactures and sells complete solutions for rapid applied genetic analysis based on its proprietary Pyrosequencing technology, a broadly applicable DNA sequencing technique.
Like sorting through a giant sock drawer, they've found new categories and discovered new matches through DNA sequencing, a process that uses specific sequences of nucleotides for identification.
Patrick Soon-Shiong, CEO and founder of NantHealth and NantOmics, said the publication showed the significance of combining tumor and normal DNA sequencing in diagnosis - and highlighted the precision of NantOmics' GPS Cancer test.
The DNA sequencing market finds application in biomarker and cancer, diagnostics, reproductive health, personalized medicine, and forensics.