DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Rather than having a single light flash indicate that DNA polymerase has added a base to a lengthening DNA strand, these scientists use chemical reactions that would generate a different color of light for each base.
Scientists from the California Institute of Technology have created an artificial neural network (or a "tiny brain," in the words of the lead scientist) from DNA strands that interact with biochemical inputs.
Induction of DNA strand breaks by intermittent exposure to extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields in human diploid fibroblasts.
In a laboratory version of evolution, the Scripps team plans to create variants of the octahedron's DNA strand and place them in different environments to see which fare best.
As in DNA strand displacement, Amy leaves with Eddie
Modern sequencing techniques can go through hundreds of millions of DNA strands at the same time, and the sequencing machines themselves need to hookup to computers.
The "dideoxy" name refers to the fact that these molecules lack the 3' hydroxyl required to allow for continued DNA strand growth; they're what's referred to as a chain terminator, because once incorporated, the polymerase can proceed no further and the newly produced DNA strand is thus exactly as long as from the beginning of its primer, to the chain terminator ddNTP.
Several previous studies also reported that the 50% or higher level of DNA strand breaks in cells of aquatic animals including mussels were linked to the different chemicals exposed in laboratory or in polluted environment (Frenzilli et al., 2001, 2004; Regoli et al., 2005; Machella et al., 2006; Gorbi et al., 2008).
Researchers from the University of Nottingham conducted health tests on 13 cloned sheep, four of which were derived directly from Dolly's DNA strand, and found all of them healthy.
Today, thanks in part to Lindahl, we know that BER corrects many different defects that affect the bases, without causing permanent structural damage to the overall DNA strand. To date, more than 100 different types of oxidative lesions have been identified and BER corrects the vast majority of them.
The pathophysiological factors and metabolic milieu in diabetes can cause DNA damage such as DNA strand break and base modification (i.e., oxidation).
DNA coding technology is another concept in cryptography that is intended to encode binary data to a DNA strand and vice versa.