dna

(redirected from DNA strand)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to DNA strand: DNA structure

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Lead induced DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of exposed workers: role of reactive oxygen species and protein kinase C.
Peripheral blood cells are often used for comet assay to detect DNA strand break while urine and serum samples are commonly used for 8-OHdG quantification.
In this step, the algorithm was developed to encrypt DNA strand plaintext according to our secret key.
Addition of interfering DNA strands releases both the hydrophobic groups and the encapsulated molecules.
Algorithm 1: Separation of DNA Strand Input: double stranded DNA strand Output: two separated single stranded DNA strands begin let s1 [left arrow] dnaStrand ; let m - numberOfThreads ; let n [left arrow] length(s1) ; foreach i [left arrow] 1 to m do break s1 into two single strands ; end end
Simultaneous detection of DNA strand breaks and unscheduled DNA synthesis in mutagen-treated human lymphocytes in the absence of hydroxyurea.
This train demonstrates polarity and can be used as an analogy for a DNA strand.
We can exclude the possibility that the elevation of DNA strand breaks was due to cell-death-associated fragmentation; indeed, light microscopy revealed a negligible occurrence of necrotic events.
A springy portion of each DNA strand runs across from the left to the right leg forming a bridge between them at the top.
The sample is then slowly heated until the tag or dye disappears, indicating that the DNA strand has denatured.
The nanotechnology platform works analogously to a DVD player, with labeled sequences on the DNA strand moving past a fixed point that reads and identifies the sequences in real-time.
It's less obvious that the DNA in your cells is constantly being checked for errors: specialized molecules creep along the length of the DNA strand searching for pieces out of place and repairing them on the spot.