dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
They are biodegradable and, in many cases, DNA strands are not as immunogenic as other materials," she says.
dNTPs, as the building blocks of nascent DNA strands by the DNA polymerase;
Using this input-output mechanism, the Caltech team assembled four neurons that give out specific DNA strand outputs that serve as both 'yes' or 'no' indicators in themselves and also inputs strands into other neurons.
Each operation is performed not on single DNA strand but on every strand simultaneously [2].
Fluorometric method for rapid detection of DNA strand breaks in human white blood cells following low doses of radiation.
In a recent issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, researchers from the Linus Pauling Institute report that reducing dietary zinc is associated with increased breakage of peripheral blood cell DNA strands, while restoring zinc to normal levels reduces breakage.
The second complementary DNA strand (key) is located in a detection pen, provided separately.
Explain that a single DNA strand begins at its 5' end with the phosphate group of the first nucleotide and ends on the last nucleotide's 3' carbon, which is free to connect to the phosphate group of another nucleotide.
Cooney studies the process of DNA methylafion or "epigenetics," which is the selective silencing of gene activity along specific segments of a DNA strand.
In this animal study, swine were given GliSODin or placebo, and DNA damage was evaluated in blood samples before and after hyperbaric-oxygen induced oxidative stress, using a measure of DNA strand breaks.
We can exclude the possibility that the elevation of DNA strand breaks was due to cell-death-associated fragmentation; indeed, light microscopy revealed a negligible occurrence of necrotic events.
A springy portion of each DNA strand runs across from the left to the right leg forming a bridge between them at the top.