For instance, the books are mine, in a usage called dative
Reference to the translative-comitative singular form in conjunction with the genitive singular form, however, provides a language-user with extra sufficient which may aid in the deduction of the dative
singular, since the dative
and the translative-comitative in the singular are almost invariably characterized by the same stem shape.
This means that even if the dative
case once had a clear morphological expression in Portuguese, in current usage a range of locative and directional prepositions mark a wide variety of semantic functions whose syntactic function is not well defined.
(12a) John gave a book to Mary TO-DATIVE (12b) John bought a book for Mary FOR--DATIVE (12c) John gave Mary a book DOC (12d) John bought Mary a book DOC (13a) A book is needed (by the PASSIVE DERIVED FROM A students) MONOTRANSITIVE (13b) A book was given to Mary (by PASSIVE DERIVED FROM A TO-DATIVE John) (13c) A book was bought for Mary PASSIVE DERIVED FROM A FOR- (by John) DATIVE
(13d) Mary was given a book (by PASSIVE DERIVED FROM A DOC John) * Prediction 2.
In a similar way, Bar[??]dal (2001) assumes that the two word orders depend on categorisation frames--whichever order is chosen, the nominative or dative
DP can be realised in the subject or in the object position.
Causativization obligatorily triggers agentive marking on a causer argument and either zero or dative
marking on a causee argument; (6) this represents one of only two situations in which the disambiguating function of agentive marking is consistent and mandatory.
VERB, Nominative COUNT, Genitive COUNT, Dative
COUNT, Accusative COUNT, Instrumental COUNT.
The topic of dative
alternation has been investigated in Spanish (Cuervo, 2007; Perpinan & Montrul, 2006) and English (Oh, 2010; Oh & Zubizarreta, 2006a, b; Whong-Barr & Schwartz, 2002) as second languages.
In 2(b) the verb aya "came" is also intransitive so its subject takes Dative
Data from Czech show that this kind of "se" is structurally different from the non-alternating "se" of anticausative inchoatives as in (1) and reflexives as in (2): Czech marks its equivalent as dative
("si" rather than "se") in similar structures, as can be seen in (17), whereas anticausative inchoatives, as in (19), and reflexives, as in (18), are unmarked.
complements, just like genitive complements, are also determined by the nature of emotion as the primary criterion of case marking.
Only Hinuq has also a Dative
which does not serve any spatial functions.