De injuria

DE INJURIA, pleading. The name of a replication in an action for a tort, that the defendant committed the trespasses or grievances of his own wrong, without the cause by,him in his plea alleged.
     2. The import of this replication is to insist that the defendant committed the act complained of, from a motive and impulse altogether different from that insisted on by the plea. For example, if the defendant has justified a battery under a writ of capias, having averred, as he must do, that the arrest was made by virtue of the writ; the plaintiff may rely de injuria sua propria absque tali causa, that the defendant did the act of his own wrong, without the cause by him alleged. This replication, then, has the effect of denying the alleged, motive contained in the plea, and to insist that the defendant acted from another, which was unlawful, and not in, consequence of the one insisted upon in his plea. Steph. Pl. 186; 2 Chit. Pl. 523,.642; Hamm. N. P. 120, 121; Arch. Civ. Pl. 264; Com. Dig. Pleader, F 19.
     3. The form of this replication is, "precludi non, because he says that the said defendant at the same time when, &c., of his own wrong, and without the cause by him in his said second plea alleged, committed the said trespass in the introductory part of that plea, in manner and form as the said plaintiff hath above in his said declaration complained against the said defendant, and this the said plaintiff prays, may be inquired of by the country," &c. This is the uniform conclusion of such a replication. 1 Chit. Pl. 585.
     4. The replication de injuria is only allowed when an excuse is offered for personal injuries. 1 B. & P. 76; 5 Johns. R. 112; 4 Johns. 150; 12 Johns. 491. Vide 7 Vin. Ab. 503; 3 Saund. 295, note; 1 Lilly's Reg. 587.
     5. In England, where the extent of the general issues has been confined in actions on contracts, and special pleas have become common in assumpsit, it has become desirable, that the plaintiff, who has but one replication, should put in issue the several numerous allegations which the special pleas were found to contain; for, unless he could do this, he would labor under the hardship of being frequently compelled to admit the greater part of an entirely false story. It became, therefore, important to ascertain whether de injuria could not be replied to cases of this description and, after numerous cases which were presented for adjudication, it was finally settled that de injuria may be replied in assumpsit, when the plea consists of matters of excuse. 3 C. M. &,R. 65; 2 Bing. N. C. 579 4 Dowl. 647.
     6. The improper use of de injuria is ground of general demurrer. 2 Lev. 65; 4 Tyrw. 771. But if the defendant do not demur, the objection will not avail after verdict. Hob. 76: Sir T. Raym. 50.
     7. De injuria puts in issue the whole of the defence contained in the plea. 5 B. & A. 420; 11 East, 451; 10 Bing. 157. But if the plea state some authority in law, which, prima facie, would be a justification of the act complained of, the plaintiff will not be allowed under the plea of de injuria to show an abuse of that authority so as to convert the defendant into a tort feasor ab initio. 1 Bing. 317; 1 Bing. N. S. 387. See 1 Smith's L. C. 53 to 61; 8 Co. 66.

References in periodicals archive ?
Modelo de injuria. A los conejos se les realizo una incision de 10 mm de largo, en la region anterior de la pierna, desde la epidermis a la dermis, hasta llegar a la fascia profunda que cubria al musculo tibial anterior.
Obviamente cuanto mas acido sea el material, su potencial de injuria se eleva, los adhesivos que han salido a partir de la decada pasada llamados autoacondicionadores o autograbantes deben ser mas acidos que sus predecesores ya que estan suprimiendo la etapa del acondicionamiento acido, entonces estos ultimos son mas faciles de manejar, pero son los mas peligrosos desde el 'punto de vista biologico, por ello conviene, conociendo las propiedades de los materiales, ver la posibilidad de combinar con otros materiales, como por ejemplo el ionomero que es menos nocivo para la pulpa, colocar eso como se hacia antes con la denominacion de "base" para no injuriar mas, el cual es un principio elemental de todo terapeuta, evitar ejercer mas dano.
Los hallazgos de este estudio con respecto a la perdida de la integridad causada por las MMP con disminucion de la deteccion de L-5 son concordantes con lo reportado por Kaenulainen et al (1998), quienes indican que L-5 juega un rol esencial en la interaccion con queratinocitos y que diferentes componentes del microambiente de la matriz extracelular interaccionan durante la cicatrizacion para restaurar la integridad de la membrana basal con L-5, independientemente del tipo de injuria experimental aplicada.
O exemplo fornecido acima "Vira homem pra falar comigo, bichinha fdp!" e interessante por demonstrar os tres elementos linguisticos elencados como estopins discursivos para afeccoes corporeas nos atos de injuria: (a) diminutivo; (b) palavroes; e (c) e acusacoes de feminilidade.
En el texto, la autora analiza el mundo de los pleitos de injuria en Chile entre los siglos XVIII y XIX, adentrandonos en la cultura juridica que rige estos procedimientos y la participacion de los distintos actores involucrados utilizando, como fuente directa, los expedientes judiciales.
a) Los sujetos institucionalizados: El malestar en la institucion psicoanalitica, cuando es registrado por sus protagonistas, muchas veces es formulado a traves de la idea del maltrato, expresion a mi entender equivalente a la de injuria narcisista.
Los autores consideran que la lesion del mismo esta asociada a su interposicion en el trayecto quirurgico y sus posibles mecanismos de injuria podrian ser secundarios a dano termico durante la electrocoagulacion cercana o por lesion mecanica durante la manipulacion trans-operatoria.
El desbalance entre oxidantes-antioxidantes esta asociado a diversas patologias, como ateroesclerosis, cancer, enfermedad de Alzheimer, diabetes mellitus, enfermedades autoinmunes, lesiones inflamatorias cronicas, situaciones de injuria por isquemia, sindrome de distres respiratorio (4).
As amostras mantidas sob refrigeracao tambem foram verificadas quanto a injuria por frio, considerando os criterios aparecimento de necrose e coloracao marrom, sintomas caracteristicos de injuria por frio.
Asi es como la escena mitologica se trueca en un objeto de desmentido y de injuria para el discurso de la marginalia:
(17) Uma meta-analise recente realizada por Klink e colaboradores avaliou o grau de injuria cerebral comparando FCL versus AR.