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Dependent variables can be divided into usage frequency and usage duration, which are common dimensions of demand characteristics. Most studies take usage frequency and its various variants (such as vehicle usage rate) as dependent variables.
Further studies are required in order to explain which substantive regularities or accidental circumstances cause the weak effect of local public services demand characteristics on the policy decisions that shape the local government budget expenditures of Estonian municipalities.
Demand characteristics are generally treated as implicit cues that convey the researcher's expectations about the results (e.g., Intons-Peterson, 1983).
Demand characteristics, including general market response and seasonality, may affect the sales or shelf-life of the product and, therefore, require a supply chain that can make adjustments in production, design, and raw materials.
While he acknowledges that he does not explore the demand side of the network and its effects on the standardization race, some classification of demand characteristics seems central to understanding the race for emerging technologies and to fully contrasting his technological community perspective with the economic theory of standardization.
Results are discussed in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations.
In contrast to previous research concerning antecedent intervention for escape motivated challenging behaviors, our study did not alter the demand characteristics of instruction but instead, was based solely on a substitution of staff as a controlling variable.
"Employability By Sector of Industry: Taking Account of Supply and Demand Characteristics (Andries de Grip, Jasper B.
As Rose Batt writes in the introduction to her paper, "Segmentation allows firms not only to target customer groups by their unique demand characteristics, but also, and more important, to create a more specialized division of labor in which each segment is matched to a distinct labor market group, sorted by skill level.
It prospers when demand characteristics are strong, infrastructure exists and there is a stable investment climate.
The result of a short-run equilibrium process within the labor market for young physicians is observed as a function of all supply and demand characteristics. Market clearance, of course, implies [P.sub.d] = [P.sub.s].
The destination-specific markup functions M and N depend on price elasticities of demand in each market and how these elasticities change with prices.(5) A number of factors--such as consumer tastes, the substitutability with competing products, and the firm's market share--dictate these demand characteristics. Any gap between [P.sub.h] and [P.sub.x]/S reflects differences between the markup functions M and N.