The first one is that the type of function that fits the discounted values
of a primary reward depends on the relationship between the BMI of the participant and the caloric value of the reward; however, this option is unlikely, given the large number of studies that report the hyperbolic function as the best description of delay discounting of different primary rewards (e.g., Charlton & Fantino, 2008; Estle et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2010; Odum, 2011; Odum et al., 2006; Odum & Rainaud, 2003; Petry, 2001).
We set the opportunity cost of going to college equal to the present discounted value
of the wage earnings of a high school graduate that she would have earned by working for four years instead of going to college.
2035(a)." This statement appears to indicate that the marital deduction should be based on 7.72 percent of the value of the underlying assets that were included in the gross estate under Code [section]2036 as opposed to the discounted value
of the 7.72 percent limited partnership interest actually received by the surviving spouse.
The online VCG mechanism aligns the incentives of agents with the social objective of following a decision policy that maximizes the expected total discounted value
to all participants.
The discounted value
at t=0 of the GLWB [V.sub.0] is the sum of the discounted values
of the living benefits (LB) and death benefits (DB):
Thus, a discounted value
of an interest in the FLP, rather than that of stock with which it was funded, was includible in a decedent's estate.
Thus, job creation in frictional labor markets places the focus on the cyclical behavior of the expected present discounted value
The gift is a discounted value
and any appreciation in the asset after transfer to the trust escapes gift and estate taxes.
In other words, the interest-only note is based on the lower discounted value
(often 20%-30%) while the non-discounted value of the shares grows within the trust.
If people are moving to a community and it doesn't have a positive school district and it doesn't have a good reputation they will avoid that property regardless of discounted value
Buffett only purchases the company if the purchase price is below its discounted value
. This provides Buffett a margin of safety.