DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006
References in periodicals archive ?
DNA viruses in human cancer: An integrated overview on fundamental mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis.
But large double-stranded DNA viruses like poxviruses and herpesviruses are much slower to evolve than RNA viruses, leaving scientists wondering how they adapt to compete in the arms race with the immune system.
Utility of DNA viruses for studying human host history: case study of JC virus.
Human papilloma viruses are double stranded circular DNA viruses. Many strains have been identified, some of them have been implicated in the common human wart.
Avipoxviruses are large, enveloped DNA viruses that belong to the genus Avi poxvi rus in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the family Poxviridae.
Cotton crop is infected by single stranded DNA viruses (Family, Geminiviridae) in Pakistan.
They explain infections and syndromes related to specific organ systems, as well as the fundamentals of modern medical virology, including immune responses and vaccinology, diagnostics, and antivirals, then agent-specific chapters on the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of key viral pathogens: specific DNA viruses, RNA viruses, and subviral agents.
In this review, we will focus on how DNA viruses alter the glucose metabolism of cancer cells during carcinogenesis.
Washington, Aug 6 ( ANI ): A large-scale analysis of the association between DNA viruses and human malignancies show that that many of the most common cancers are not associated with DNA viruses.
Therefore experiments have been performed to measure the antiviral activity of Sinupret[R] oral drops (hereinafter referred to as "oral drops") and Sinupret[R] dry extract (hereinafter referred to as "dry extract"), in vitro against a broad panel of both enveloped and non-enveloped human pathogenic RNA and DNA viruses known to cause infections of the upper respiratory tract: influenza A, Chile 1/83 (H1N1) virus (FluA), Porcine Influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus (pFluA), parainfluenza type 3 virus (Para 3), respiratory syncytial virus, strain Long (RSV), human rhinovirus B subtype 14 (HRV 14), coxsackievirus subtype A9 (CA9), and adenovirus C subtype 5 (Adeno 5).
In sections on DNA viruses, RNA viruses, and current topics, they discuss such matters as entomopoxviruses, the biology and genetics of nudiviruses, the genomics and biology of iflavilruses, cypoviruses, the role of microRNAs as regulators of host-virus interactions, apoptosis and humeral responses as antiviral responses in insects, and the ecology of baculoviruses.
TTV is characterized by an unusually high degree of sequence variability compared to other DNA viruses and several distinct TTV genotypes have been described (2,23,24).