Juris Doctor

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Juris Doctor

The degree awarded to an individual upon the successful completion of law school.

Juris doctor, or doctor of Jurisprudence, commonly abbreviated J.D., is the degree commonly conferred by law schools. It is required in all states except California (which includes an option called law office study) to gain Admission to the Bar. Gaining admission to the bar means obtaining a license to practice law in a particular state or in federal court.

Until the 1930s and 1940s, many states did not require a person to have a law school degree in order to obtain a license to practice law. Most lawyers qualified for a license by working as an apprentice for an established attorney for a specified period. By the 1950s most states required a law school degree. State legislatures established this requirement to raise the standards of practicing attorneys and to restrict the number of attorneys. The degree offered by most Colleges and Universities was called a master of laws (L.L.M.) degree. In the 1960s, as colleges and universities increased the requirements for a law degree, the J.D. replaced the L.L.M. as the primary degree awarded by law schools.

The specific requirements for a J.D. vary from school to school. Generally, the requirements include completing a minimum number of class hours each academic period, and taking certain mandatory courses such as contracts, torts, Civil Procedure, and Criminal Law in the first year of law school. All states require that students pass a course on Professional Responsibility before receiving a J.D. degree.

Further readings

Morgan, Thomas D., and Ronald D. Rotunda. 1993. Professional Responsibility: Problems and Materials. 5th ed. Westbury, N.Y.: Foundation Press.

Tuttle, Cliff. 1995. "Juris Doctor: The Versatile Degree." Pennsylvania Law Weekly 18 (December 11).

Cross-references

Legal Education.

Juris Doctor (J.D.)

n. the law degree granted upon graduation by many university law schools with accepted high standards of admission and grading. This often supersedes the Bachelor of Laws in recognition that the law curriculum entitles a person to a graduate degree.

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Curtis earned his Bachelor of Science degree in Marketing from the Indiana University School of Business in Bloomington and went on to receive his Doctorate of Jurisprudence from the Indiana University School of Law.
She holds a Doctorate of Jurisprudence with distinction from the University of Iowa College of Law.
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A native of Ames, Iowa, Lagomarcino earned his bachelor's degree from Iowa State University and his doctorate of jurisprudence from Drake University Law School.
Cafesjian later earned a degree in economics from Hunter College, and a doctorate of jurisprudence from St.
He received his doctorate of jurisprudence degree from the University of Iowa in Iowa City, Iowa.
She'll receive her Doctorate of Jurisprudence this month.
A graduate of Marquette University, he also earned a doctorate of jurisprudence from Cooley Law School.
Matthew Dames, doctorate of jurisprudence, holds an M.L.S.
She is a Catholic theologian with a doctorate from Catholic University and a lawyer with a doctorate of jurisprudence from the University of Wisconsin.]
He earned his doctorate of jurisprudence from the University of Santo Tomas de Aquinos.