at Johnson Space Center, USA, Southwest Research Institute, USA, Christian Albrechts University, Germany, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA, German Aerospace Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarter and other institutes, reported that MSL spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover launched to Mars on 26 November 2011 provided detailed measurements of energetic particle radiation environment inside the RAD, the radiation dose, dose equivalent
, and dose rate.
The calculated value of the thermal neutron flux density was 1817.5 neutrons/[cm.sup.2]/s and the average value of kerma rate determined on this basis amounted to 244 [micro]Gy/h, and the dose equivalent
rate stood at 610 [micro]Sv/h.
The world average annual effective dose equivalent
(AEDE) from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation is 460 [mu]Sv/y (UNSCEAR, 2000).
account for the greater biological effect in an organ or tissue of internal alpha and beta particles as compared with gamma rays.
The key idea of the [GAMMA]-LQ model  is the substitution of the absorbed dose by a biological dose equivalent
These laboratories may also have different types of instruments or ways of calculating the exposure rate or ambient dose equivalent
rate used for testing.
The sever (symbol: Vs.) is the International System of Units (SI) SI derived unit of dose equivalent
After feeding rats a caffeine dose equivalent
to two human cups of coffee (two milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of body weight), the team measured the strength of nerve cells' electrical messages in slices of brain tissue.
Annual Dose Equivalent
on Endocrine AGDE (Msv.Y-1):
 Chen, S.Y., 1991; Calculation of effective dose equivalent
responses for exteranl exposure from residual photon emitters in soil.
Evaporates were reconstituted to 1 mL yielding a final dose equivalent
to 1.00 g dried thyme/mL EtOH.
The result is a clinical therapeutic dose equivalent
to apheresis platelets but typically at a lower cost to produce.