DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Presence of double-stranded RNAs in human and calf isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum.
Since many viruses create double-stranded RNA as they replicate, mammalian cells react strongly to its presence, often by committing suicide.
During DNA replication, the MCM complex is positioned at the fork where double-stranded DNA separates into single strands.
* The nick to be repaired occurs on a single strand but in the context of a double-stranded molecule.
It is triggered when a cell encounters double-stranded RNA, or two strands zipped together--the kind viruses create as they try to copy their genetic material.
Measurements of the amounts and length distributions of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), RNA-DNA hybrids, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in particular might provide useful information about the sample (11).
They cover nanoparticles and biological molecules, nanostructures formed by hybridization of synthetic single-stranded DNA molecules, liquid nanoconstructions based on spatially ordered double-stranded DNA molecules, rigid nanoconstructions based on spatially ordered double-stranded DNA molecules complexed with various compounds and nanoparticles, the creation of viral particles as rigid biological nanoconstructions and prospects for their medical application, and applying liquid and rigid DNA nanoconstructions immobilized in polymeric hydrogel as sensing units.
Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds.
Integrated DNA Technologies' gBlocks Gene Fragments are double-stranded, sequence-verified genomic blocks up to 500 base pairs.
British scientists have isolated the virulent bacteriophage CTP1, which belongs to the Siphoviridae family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect only bacteria.
The building block of the Caltech neural network is double-stranded DNA molecules with loose ends.
The opening of the second hairpin then reveals a sequence that binds to the first type of hairpin, and so on.In this way, detection of the RNA cancer marker triggers the self-assembly of a long double-stranded RNA polymer.