production up to 15 million dry tons
per year by 2022.
Facility construction and operating costs were based on data from the ZeaChem demonstration biorefinery at Boardman, Oregon (Verser and Eggeman 2011), which was designed with a production yield of approximately 80 gallons of jet fuel from each dry ton
of biomass feedstock.
Once the Baltimore facility is running, it will be able to process up to five dry tons
of sludge per day.
Biomass at $60 per dry ton
realistically yields about 100 gallons of ethanol, which translates into a feedstock cost of only 60 cents per gallon.
Costs for purpose-grown energy crops typically range from about $25 to more than $115 per dry ton
. The total cost of energy-crop biomass includes growing the crop, which is generally not included for agricultural and forest residues.
In a case with bleach plant filtrate recycle and an ESP dust purge of 16 kg/ton (air dry ton
), the sticky dust temperature drops from 760[degrees]C to 700[degrees]C, reaching steady state in 80 days.
per approximately 4 L (1 gal) based on a conversion efficiency of 285 L (75 gal) per dry ton
Biomass feedstock at $35 per dry ton
($38.5 per dry metric ton) constitutes 34 percent of the finished ethanol price.
Formerly the costs were less than $100 per dry ton
. In the late 1980s, however, estimates often had jumped to $500 per dry ton
, or more.
Current technology, based on dilute acid pretreatment and fermentation, can produce up to 80 gallons of ethanol from one dry ton
of woody biomass (Hamelinck et al.
Around 5,000 tons of ore with a gold head grade of 1.2 ounces per ton and a silver head grade of 9.5 ounces per ton have realised net revenue of CDD3.9m after toll treatment costs of CDD45 per dry ton
and a recoupment of capital amortization cost.
The sensitivity test showed that overall production cost changed at rates of $0.17, $0.62, and $7.86 per bone dry ton
for each additional mile of highway, unpaved road, and spur road, respectively (Fig.