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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The initial amount of dsDNA in each PSA-CMAb complex was inversely proportional to the Cq.
Provide a curated database of "sequences of concern" for dsDNA providers to use for screening.
Detection of a positive signal in a TMA reaction is based on the detection of the dsDNA product molecule after completion of the amplification stage.
Analyses of total dsDNA stock and dsDNA:TOC ratio showed that there was no difference (P=0.
Results with the standard protocol (1 X reverse transcriptase) were highly variable, from 0% to 35%, with respect to the relative amount of dsDNA formed (Fig.
The higher the dose, the greater the reduction in antibodies to dsDNA, and the relative magnitude of these reductions is greater than we have seen in previous studies, which used lower doses of Riquent.
In principle, this is a two-step EIA in which specimens are incubated with polystyrene beads coated with a mixture of a soluble HEp2 cell extract and seven recombinant proteins (60-kDa SSA/Ro, 52-kDa SSA/Ro, SSB/ La, Scl-70, Jo-1, dsDNA, and CENP-B, which is a major autoantigen corresponding to anti-centromere antibodies) (9).
Unlike competing methods, which consume the sample RNA during the amplification process, Expression Snapshot(TM) provides an archival dsDNA representation of the original RNA sample that may be stored and retranscribed repeatedly over several months.
1] Nonstandard abbreviations: dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; Hb, hemoglobin; HTR2A, hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A; and [T.
Avise SLE & Avise SLE+ Connective Tissue work together as a convenient 19-marker diagnostic to provide greater sensitivity and specificity over standard ANA and dsDNA.
The solid-phase assay significantly improves the detection of antibodies specifically directed towards dsDNA in serum with unparalleled sensitivity and precision compared to existing diagnostic methods that detect and have difficulty separating both ssDNA and dsDNA.
3) Nonstandard abbreviations: CENP-B, centromere protein B; CK19, cytokeratin 19; SSA/52, SSA 52-kDa antigen; SSA/60, SSA 60-kDa antigen; ANA, anti-nuclear antibody antigen; CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; RF, rheumatoid factor; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; ssDNA, single-stranded DNA; U1snRNP, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1; Scl-70, topoisomerase 1; Sm, Smith antigen; GST, glutathione S-transferase; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; CCD, charge-coupled device; TBST, Tris-buffered saline-Tween; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SS, Sjogren syndrome; PM, polymyositis; and SSc, systemic sclerosis.