dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
We used dsDNA as a surrogate for microbial biomass, as suggested by Marstorp et al.
In 1991, Smeenk et al found that the specificity of ELISA for dsDNA is 100% and sensitivity is 88%; similarly in this study, the specificity of dsDNA was 100% while the sensitivity was 72.
We also evaluated the relationship between the relative amount of dsDNA and sample-to-sample variation in gene expression levels.
Anti- dsDNA p-ANCA c-ANCA and Anti-SMA were tested using commercial Euroimmun kits based on Indirect Fluorescein Antibody method (IFA) method according to manufacturer's instructions at the Serology-Immunology Unit Medical Faculty of Afyon Kocatepe University.
Since each dsDNA molecule (e) can drive the transcription of large numbers of RNA transcripts (f) and each of these can in turn create a new dsDNA (e), the system effectively amplifies the target region.
The saturation dyes provide consistent saturation of dsDNA to offer reliable and sensitive data during melting curve acquisition (Reed et al.
The initial amount of dsDNA in each PSA-CMAb complex was inversely proportional to the Cq.
Analyses of interim antibody data indicate that patients treated with 900 mg or 300 mg per week doses of Riquent had greater reductions in antibodies to dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) than patients treated with 100 mg per week or placebo.
After removal of RNA and partial denaturation of DNA by HCl, AO was used to stain nondenatured dsDNA and denatured ssDNA, resulting in green and red fluorescence, respectively.
This is accomplished by separating dsDNA amplicons based on their size (base pairs) by using a charged electrical field to drive the dsDNA polyanions to the detector at the anode.
The thermal stability of dsDNA in aqueous salt solution is dependent on a number of factors (2).