DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
[DELTA]I was defined as [I.sub.target] - [I.sub.blank], where [I.sub.target] represents the fluorescence intensity of the mixture that contains target HIV-1 dsDNA and [I.sub.blank] denotes the fluorescence intensity in the absence of target HIV-1 dsDNA.
(ii) The interactions between the surfaces of the upper and lower intermediate layers and the surfaces of the ssDNA and dsDNA molecules
Data for dsDNA and enzymatic activity were grouped according to the management practices in cropping and pasture sites, and one-way ANOVA was performed to detect the effect of management practices.
The standard curve of dsDNA was constructed by plotting the mean absorbance obtained for each reference standard against its concentration in U/ml on graph paper with absorbance on the vertical (Y) axis and concentation on the horizontal (X) axis (Enger,2000).
This result suggests that double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) activates a kinase that is present in the oocytes.
Whether antibodies against dsDNA and C1q are merely epiphenomena or if they are truly involved in the pathogenesis of SLE has been discussed.
In association with the foregoing treatment, the titer of her dsDNA Ab declined to 6 IU/ml, whereas her C3 and C4 rose to 80 mg/dL and 14 mg/dL.
1A) uses the strong preference of a thermostable duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) toward digestion of dsDNA over single-stranded DNA (29).
Interestingly, all the patients with Class III and IV lupus nephritis had positive levels of anti- dsDNA titers with majority of these patients (29 out of 48) having anti-dsDNA titers > 50 IU/ml.
Initial labs included a complete blood count (CBC), 2 blood cultures, a urine culture, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a purified protein derivative skin test, chest and abdominal CT scans, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) levels (since this patient had known SLE).
Laboratory investigations revealedWBC = 5,800 cells/mm3 (58% neutro hils, 28% lymphocytes), hemoglobin = 7.9 g/dL, platelets = 1,67,000/mm3, erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) = 30 mm/h; specific tests -ANA test was positive with ANA titer = 1:520 though anti- double stranded DNA (dsDNA) was negative.
ANA anti dsDNA anti LKM Anti-SMA AMA C-ANCA P-ANCA anti-SSA anti-SSB anti-Scl-70 anti Jo-1 anti-U1snRNP anti- centromere anti-Jo-1 anti tpo and anti tg were studied in all individuals in each study group.