Plethodontid salamanders do not conform to "general rules" for ectotherm
life histories: insights from allocation models about why simple models do not make accurate predictions.
Ingestion rates (r) of temperate-zone ectotherms
are likely to be maximal in warmer months and minimal in winter.
For each simulation, I estimated the average and maximum body temperatures of each mussel, as well as the average rate of change in body temperature (in degrees Celsius per minute), a potentially important measure for ectotherms
whose body temperature fluctuates over short time scales (Newell 1969, Widdows 1976, Johnson and Shick 1977).
Body size and limits to daily range of body temperature in terrestrial ectotherms
Because the bones of mammals and other endotherms do not show growth rings, their presence in Syntarsus links that animal with ectotherms
Furthermore, proximate mechanisms may be entirely different in vertebrates vs invertebrates, or endo- vs ectotherms
(Blanckenhorn et al.
Thus, there is strong empirical evidence that refutes the Bergmann's Rule paradigm, and in fact points to a converse of Bergmann's Rule for ectotherms
, as has been suggested by Masaki and others (Masaki 1978; Roff 1980, 1986; Scott and Dingle 1990).
If the temperatures did not drop below freezing too frequently, large ectotherms
could survive by lowering their internal temperature and slowing down their lifestyle.
for review) and for body size as well in numerous ectotherm
model systems: thus, when egg size changes inversely with temperature, this can be considered part of the size-temperature rule of Rass (1941: Laplikhovsky.
Body size is an important component of life-history theory in ectotherms
, with particular relevance for reproductive effort (Roff 1992).
However, in aquatic ectotherms
observations are controversial.
If we are to develop general models of energy allocation in ectotherms
, and especially if we are to determine whether patterns of energy allocation differ fundamentally between long- and short-lived species (Sauer and Slade 1987, Weimerskirch 1992, Pertin and Sibly 1993, Schwarzkopf 1993), then data on long-lived species (including organisms that frequently skip opportunities for reproduction) are essential.