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The torque required to initiate movement at the elbow flexion and shoulder elevation joints of the robot was 0.
Therefore, by preventing rotation of the shoulder in this degree of freedom (DOF), the motor control was simplified, concentrated to shoulder abduction and/or adduction in the loaded condition and shoulder extension and/or shoulder flexion and elbow extension and/or elbow flexion during reaching movements.
This difference likely results from the elbow joint angle considered for the MVC trial, since at 90[degrees] of elbow flexion the biceps brachii fibers may be closer to optimal length for isometric force production (Hay, 1991; Inman et al.
For example, inadequate signal separation exists if the hand closes during elbow flexion.
The elbow flexion force was measured with a transducer, while a diagonal strap was secured over the elbow to maintain a stationary position during the MVC.
The investigators concluded that limited arthroscopic capsular release appears to be a satisfactory treatment for elbow flexion contracture.
The isometric strengths were tested in the sitting position with shoulder angles of 90[degrees] abduction, 90[degrees] elbow flexion and 90[degrees] ER.
She has difficulty getting finger foods to her mouth because of an ulnar deviation and profound weakness in elbow flexion.
One of the earliest studies examined the relationship between isometric elbow flexion strength and mCSA determined by ultrasonography in 12 to 29 y-old (Ikai and Fukunaga, 1968).
This structure is taut in flexion and when scarred can limit elbow flexion.
This investigation found very little kinematic similarity in the sub maximal trials and the maximum effort trials with only maximum elbow flexion angle remaining constant across trials.
The angle was chosen because biomechanical testing has shown that the greatest amount of force transmitted from the radial head to the capitellum occurs between zero and thirty degrees of elbow flexion.