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CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
     2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
     3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Encryption Algorithm. The digital image encryption algorithm proposed in this paper includes the following: first, bit permutation, the use of the butterfly network to achieve each pixel bit position permutation; second, pixel location scrambling transforms.
Hu, "A family of new complex number chaotic maps based image encryption algorithm," Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol.
This paper proposed a new image encryption algorithm based on the cross diffusion of two chaotic maps.
The several encryption algorithms, routing protocols and advanced tools are used to secure a huge amount of data over the internet (Sivakarthik, 2010).
In view of the symmetric structure, the decryption steps for our encryption algorithm are the same but in an inverse order.
Based on principles of cryptology, a good encryption algorithm should be sensitive to plaintext sufficiently.
Therefore, this paper proposes a new image encryption algorithm by combining the chaotic system with the DNA code database.
Motivated by the above analysis, this paper aims at proposing a novel image encryption algorithm that incorporates the fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz (FOHCL) system and fractional-order hyperchaotic Lorenz DNA (FOHCLDNA) computing in order to improve the security of image encryption.
The encryption algorithm would be chosen in an arbitrary manner so as to make cryptanalysis much more complicated.
In [16], the authors presented an encryption scheme, based on a parallel full shuffling and encryption algorithm. In this paper, the logistic map, the Lorenz system, and the Chen system were used in the encryption algorithm.