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In Chapter 3, "Moral Relativism," Kowalski explains this example of ethical theory by showing that morality is related to the group that is interpreting it.
Virtue-based ethical theory presents itself as the next logical alternative because it provides a basis for an internalized system for individuals' ethical reasoning.
The problem the authors note is that the search for a perfect ethical theory is centuries old--actually, I would note, it is millennia old--so it is unlikely that we will anytime soon have a universally acceptable ethical theory.
But prior to their publication, MacIntyre had already decided on a historical approach to the understanding of ethical theory that appears in his A Short History of Ethics, which employs a combination of historical and sociological approaches to describe the course of ethical theory in the West, proceeding from the ancient Greeks to the medievals, to the Scottish Enlightenment, Kant, utilitarianism, and twentieth-century ethicists including G.
Communicative ethical theory puts dialogue at the centre of decision-making processes and attempts to answer the question: how does this view influence our understanding of moral development as a manifestation of dialogue/communication?
The second way in which Hill succeeds is in his expansion of Kant's ethics and demonstration of how a broadly Kantian ethical theory can be applied to contemporary ethical problems.
The centrality of the face for Levinas' ethical theory is again taken up by Deborah Bird Rose in chapter 5 entitled 'Ruined Faces'.
The search for a single unifying theory is misconceived, Hallisey believes, because "we realize that there can be no answer to a question that asks us to discover which family of ethical theory underlies Buddhist ethics in general, simply because Buddhists availed themselves of and argued over a variety of moral theories" ("Ethical" 37).
At the same time, the ethical theory and the understanding of conscience that Moyar attributes, I think rightly, to Hegel avoids the subjectivism associated with an abstract notion of conscience by requiring that the value of our actions follows from socially available and universal purposes and standards of right.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory going back to Jeremy Bentham (2009), James Mill (1829), John Stuart Mill (2002) and others.
A more mixed assessment of applied ethical theory was given by David Carr (2000).
In order to effectively meet the objectives of ethics education, students should be taught ethical theory (Armstrong, 1993; Loeb, 1988).