Marshall Plan

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Marshall Plan

After World War II, Europe was devastated and urgently needed an organized plan for reconstruction and economic and technical aid. The Marshall Plan was initiated in 1947 to meet this need.

The originator of the plan, U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, introduced it in a speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947. He pointed out two basic reasons for providing aid to Europe: the United States sought the reestablishment of the European countries as independent nations capable of conducting valuable trade with the United States; and the threat of a Communist takeover was more prevalent in countries that were suffering economic depression.

In 1947 a preliminary conference to discuss the terms of the program convened in Paris. The Soviet Union was invited to attend but subsequently withdrew from the program, as did other Soviet countries.

Sixteen European countries eventually participated, and, in July 1947, the Committee for European Economic Cooperation was established to allow representatives from member countries to draft a report that listed their requirements for food, supplies, and technical assistance for a four-year period.

The Committee for European Economic Cooperation subsequently became the Organization of European Economic Cooperation, an expanded and permanent organization that was responsible for submitting petitions for aid. In 1948, Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (62 Stat. 137), establishing funds for the Marshall Plan to be administered under the Economic Cooperation Administration, which was directed by Paul G. Hoffman.

Between 1948 and 1952, the sixteen-member countries received more than $13 billion dollars in aid under the Marshall Plan. The plan was generally regarded as a success that led to industrial and agricultural production, while stifling the Communist movement. The plan was not without its critics, however, and many Europeans believed the Cold War hostilities between the Soviet nations and the free world were aggravated by it.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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If anything, they wanted to promote a reduction in taxes, not an increase, as the European Recovery Program would surely demand.
The two men met repeatedly at Blair House, neutral turf for both of them, and hammered out the strategy for getting the European Recovery Program through Congress.
Now that Marshall had placed the administration's case solidly before the Congress, it was time for him to "hit the road." Throughout the winter and spring of 1947-48, Marshall traveled across America, promoting the passage of the European Recovery Program. He spoke in Chicago, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Des Moines, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles and a dozen other cities where opposition seemed strongest.
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When, in the summer of 1947, the European countries signed on for the Marshall Plan (officially known as the European Recovery Program, ERP), each of them accepted a clause which allowed for the dissemination within their borders of information and news' on the workings of the plan itself.

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