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Although DeLancey "first became aware of the phenomenon of mirativity" while "trying to untangle the marking of evidentiality and volition in the Lhasa Tibetan verb paradigm" (DeLancey 2001: 371), he subsequently came to agree with the present author that "the immediate evidence category in Tibetic languages is, strictly speaking, an evidential category, and thus by definition not a pure mirative" (2012: 554).
In 1990 DeLancey was less certain about the touchstone quality of the pure Hare mirative, writing of lo in Hare that "precisely this semantic category occurs in the evidential systems of at least three other unrelated languages", namely Turkish, Tibetan, and "the Dardic languages Kalasha and Khowar" (4) (DeLancey 1990: 157).
In the introduction to her article, Marja Leinonen lists all the Finno-Ugric languages that use grammatical marking to indicate an indirect evidential source of information (2000: 419-420).
This construction is possible with present time reference (58) and past time reference, and when it has past time reference, only indirect evidential forms can be used (59) and never direct evidentials.
Aikhenvald (2004) notes that reported evidentials often come to be interpreted as marking information the speaker does not vouch for (as is the case, for example, in Estonian and Tariana).
The primary aim is to analyse a number of the evidential expressions used by political and religious leaders in their speeches; its secondary aim is to then show how discourse producers are maintaining public face and legitimising political or religious positions with the use of evidential expressions, and finally to contribute to a better understanding of evidentiality in the English language.
The nominative source of the Livonian reported indicative marker makes it especially close to the reported evidentials in the eastern dialects of South Estonian despite the fact that agreement with the subject in number is a specific feature of Courland Livonian (cf.
Regarding the semantic distinction, evidentials are generally divided into direct and indirect evidentials (Givon 1982).
1) Recent views on the relationship between evidentials and modals have been put forward by V.
Evidentials have not any time reference of their own.
The source of grammaticalized evidentiality is the previous evidential strategy, for example, the jussive oodaku 'he should wait' has evolved from the third person imperative.