DNA

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
In contrast, they found that the efficiency of HDR in iPSC is much lower, and targeted DNA cleavage was primarily repaired based on the exogenous DNA template [50].
(100-103) It is now evident that the acquisition of novel genes from exogenous DNA, such as LTR retrotransposons/ retroviruses, is another important mechanism in the creation of novel genes.
Uptake of exogenous DNA by mammalian spermatozoa specific localization of DNA on sperm heads.
(133) Heerey J held that the claim to the product of procaryotic or eucaryotic expression of an exogenous DNA sequence was permissibly wide because the DNA sequence for EPO was a principle of general application and, therefore, it was acceptable for the claim to be made in correspondingly general terms.
At the same time, they reported that NLS contributed to the stability of exogenous DNA fragments by preventing the degradation of transferred genes in cytoplasm [26].
Longer fragment exogenous DNA was more difficult in transformation in Chinese cabbage via the pollen-tube pathway.
In all, 13 different individuals were studied and three of them were studied in duplicate for two purposes: comparison of the duplicated results to determine the quality of the procedure and identification of possible contamination with exogenous DNA, based on the fulfillment of the criteria of authenticity.
Today, the most widely used methods for the production of transgenic farm animals are direct microinjection of foreign DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized eggs, nuclear transfer using genetically modified embryonic or somatic donor cells and viral-based constructs as vectors for the introduction of exogenous DNA into embryos.
Sperm Mediated Gene Transfer in Pigs: Effect of Exogenous DNA Presence in Seminal Quality and Evaluation of in vivo Transgenic Embryo Production
As such, the invention may be used for the insertion of exogenous DNA sequences into the bacteria of the invention.
Contamination: The unintentional introduction of exogenous DNA into a DNA sample or PCR reaction prior to amplification.