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In both the intracellular and extracellular spaces, the concentration of negative ions (124.
e] are the electrical potential in the intracellular and extracellular spaces.
Transient hypoxiaischemia in rats: changes in diffusion-sensitive MR imaging findings, extracellular space, and Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase and cytochrome oxidase activity.
We previously reported that activation of Nrf2 may be a key factor in detoxification of MeHg because Nrf2 facilitates the excretion of MeHg into the extracellular space in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary mouse hepatocytes (Toyama et al.
In these studies, phase angle indicates cell membrane potential and water distribution between the intra- and extracellular spaces and is used widely in human medicine as a means to measure nutritional status, but it has never been applied to fish or lower vertebrates.
The equilibrium for IgG molecules between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which reflects the brain extracellular space, and the blood is in the range of 1:500.
Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that, following its release into the extracellular space, binds to specific adenosine receptors expressed on the cell surface.
A study of the effect of Hyal-Joint on synovial fluid concluded that Hyal-Joint increases intracellular HA, which would be followed by HA secretion into the extracellular space.
HA is located in the extracellular space of human and animal tissues, such as the vitreous material of the eye, the umbilical cord, skin, synovial joints and the combs of chickens and roosters, where it provides a cushioning and lubricating function.
hepatic stellate cells, during their transdifferentiation in extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts (4, 5); (iii) expression of CTGF is strongly upregulated in fibrotic liver tissue (4, 5); and (iv) CTGF is secreted into the extracellular space and, thus, can reach the systemic circulation directly.
Although the proposed mechanism for export of the virus to the extracellular space is through fusion of the transport vesicle membrane at the cell surface, this process seemed to result in localized breaching at the plasma membrane, where the virus extrusion occurred (Figure 4A, thin arrows).

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