The second countermeasure leverages falsifiability
and the valence reversal manipulation done to all appraisals (machine as well as human generated) in stage 4.
However, in strict logical terms falsifiability
only applies to universally quantified statements, which is to say that in mathematical logic notation they would appear in some form such as "[for all]x P(x)", read as "for all x, x has property P," or perhaps more briefly and colloquially, "all x's are P's." Obviously, such a claim is disproved by a single counterexample of an x that is not a P.
The cornerstones of science are the concepts of falsifiability
, testability, and repeatability by agreed-upon empirical standards.
It opens doors to falsifiability
because the material is more accessible for analysis and criticism if it is clear and succinct.
We may understand the falsifiability
as part of the criticizability.
The pseudoscience syndrome includes a lack of verifiability, falsifiability
and progressiveness, and a reliance on selective evidence and confirmation bias (Allchin, 2004; Lilienfeld, 2008; Lindeman, 1998; Thagard, 1978; Still & Dryden, 2004).
The proposal to use Non-Parametric Statistics as a resource for the analysis of information that does not require a population model and that does not require a large number of hypotheses takes into consideration that this resource also provides the Didactic Engineering methodology with a treatment that meets the prerogative of falsifiability
in Popper's scientific method.
[if] it can be (and has been) tested." (54) To evaluate whether expert testimony regarding a theory or technique is "scientific knowledge," Justice Blackmun lists four factors that the court may consider: (55) (1) testability or falsifiability
, (2) peer review and publication, (3) error rate, and (4) general acceptance within the relevant field.
This is especially evident when comparing soft with hard sciences regarding falsifiability
(Fanelli, 2010) or skepticism (Jaffe et al., 2010); where in the softer sciences, subjective imagination is more frequently in better regard than experiment.
What separates those that move forward from those that fall flat often comes down to one feature: falsifiability
In science and epistemology, an important and contemporary concept is falsifiability
. Also known as refutability, falsifiability
is defined by the possibility of any hypothesis to be eventually proven wrong.
Justice Blackmun provided a nonexhaustive list of four factors that judges may consider when deciding on the admissibility of scientific evidence: (1) whether the evidence can be and has been tested (known as falsifiability
or refutability); (2) whether the evidence has been subjected to peer review and publication; (3) the known or potential rate of error for the technique or evidence seeking to be admitted; and (4) the general acceptance of the technique or evidence in the scientific community.