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SUBSTITUTE, contracts. One placed under another to transact business for him; in letters of attorney, power is generally given to the attorney to nominate and appoint a substitute.
     2. Without such power, the authority given to one person cannot in general be delegated to another, because it is a personal trust and confidence, and is not therefore transmissible. The authority is given to him to exercise his judgment and discretion, and it cannot be said that the trust and confidence reposed in him shall be exercised at the discretion of another. 2 Atk. 88; 2 Ves. 645. But an authority may be delegated to another, when the attorney has express power to do so. Bunb. 166; T. Jones, 110. See Story, Ag. Sec. 13, 14. When a man is drawn in the militia, he may in some cases hire a substitute.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Eating food which is naturally low in fat and calories may be a better route than relying on fat substitutes or artificial sweeteners."
The Top Ten Slogans for the New Fat Substitute included: "We can't tell you exactly how we make it, but we can say this: 10 monkeys go into a room and only nine come out." And Mike Deupree, a columnist for The Cedar Rapids Gazette, where Max products are being test marketed, checked out the new chips himself.
It appears to be pretty much the same story with fat substitutes. We're advised to eat less than 30 percent of our calories as fat.
This presumption helps explain CSPI's campaign against olestra, a promising fat substitute that the group helped sink by linking it to stomach cramps, diarrhea, and "anal leakage." Foods fried in olestra, a synthesis of sugar and vegetable oil also known as sucrose polyester, have the same texture as foods fried in oil, but olestra adds no calories because its molecules are too large to be digested.
commissioned both studies to meet FDA requirements for post-marketing surveillance of the fat substitute, also known by the brand name Olean.
And they're adding indigestible gums and cellulose derivatives to foods as emulsifiers and fat substitutes. Needless to say, no one has looked at what happens to people who eat more than one of these additives on the same day.
Called Oatrim because it is made from oat flour, the product offers the additional advantage that it contains soluble fiber, rather than simply being a fat substitute. A combination of the carbohydrate, amylodextrin, and beta glucan, the main fiber in oats and barley, Oatrim has been licensed by the USDA to two manufacturers, Quaker and ConAgra.
* In an attempt to match the texture of ice cream, the new frozen desserts use an array of ingredients, from Simplesse (a fat substitute made from proteins of egg whites and milk) and maltodextrin (a starch-based product) to polydextrose (a derivative of cornstarch) and a variety of natural gums (such as guar and cellulose).
Be aware some contain olestra (Olean), a calorie-free fat substitute that in large amounts can cause loose stools.
The ice cream is made with skimmed milk and a carbohydrate based fat substitute. A luxury chocolate ice cream for less than 150 calories.
It has an excellent mouthfeel and could have applications as a fat substitute."