Therefore, it can be speculated that anthropometric characteristics, particularly body height and fat-free mass
, are keyphysical determinants for playing handball in an top-level adults (10, 16).
Cunliffe, "The role of diet and exercise for the maintenance of fat-free mass
and resting metabolic rate during weight loss," Sports Medicine, vol.
Van Loan and Koehler  also reported the absence of changes in the fat-free mass
, together with a slight reduction in the water compartment of subjects over 75 years of age.
*p<0.05; #p<0.0001 BA, Bone Age; BA-CA, Bone Age--Chronological Age; T, Testosterone; AH, Axillary Hair; GD, Genital Development; PH, Pubic Hair; FFM, Fat-Free Mass
; CA, Chronological Age; ST, Stature;DHS, Dominant Handgrip Strength.
Effects of 24 weeks of progressive resistance training on knee extensors peak torque and fat-free mass
in older women.
Women (n = 83) Mean [+ or -] SD Range Age (yrs) 20.6 [+ or -] 1.5 18-27 Height (cm) 161.2 [+ or -] 12.8 60.9-177 Body Mass (kg) 61.1 [+ or -] 8.1 43.3-83.8 BMI (kg x [m.sup.-2]) 23.1 [+ or -] 2.5 17.8-29.4 Body Fat (%) 23.9 [+ or -] 5.5 10.3-35.8 Fat Mass (kg) 14.9 [+ or -] 4.9 4.7-28.9 Fat-Free Mass
(kg) 46.2 [+ or -] 4.5 37.2-59.1 Men (n = 81) Mean [+ or -] SD Range Age (yrs) 20.9 [+ or -] 1.5 18-24 Height (cm) 175.7 [+ or -] 13.4 * 71-199 Body Mass (kg) 81.3 [+ or -] 10.6 * 62.3-113.1 BMI (kg x [m.sup.-2]) 26.1 [+ or -] 3.6 * 20-44.7 Body Fat (%) 15.1 [+ or -] 5.2 * 4.7-36.1 Fat Mass (kg) 12.6 [+ or -] 5.8 3.2-40.8 Fat-Free Mass
(kg) 68.7 [+ or -] 7.1 * 53.3-90.2 All values are mean [+ or -] SD.
As can be seen in Table 1, there was a significant reduction in body mass (-1.72 [+ or -] 0.41 kg; P < 0.001), fat mass (-2.23 [+ or -] 0.38 kg; P < 0.001), and percentage body fat (-1.90 [+ or -] 0.22%; P < 0.001) following the exercise intervention, while fat-free mass
was preserved at baseline levels (+0.52 [+ or -] 0.17 kg; P = 0.081).
where [FFM.sub.TBW] stands for fat-free mass
hydration based on the age- and sex-specific constants and TBW for total body water.
Variable Mean [+ or -] SD Age (years) 66.7 5.46 Weight (kg) 64.65 10.36 Height (m) 1.52 0.06 BMI (kg x [m.sup.-2]) 27.69 3.95 Percent body fat (%) 39.62 5.96 PT (Nm) 95.96 22.87 PT relative to body weight (Nm x [kg.sup.-1]) 147.6 30.51 Total FFM (kg) 37.17 4.19 Relative total FFM (kg) 15.91 1.36 AFFM (kg) 14.32 1.94 Relative AFFM (kg) 6.12 0.66 Resting heart rate (bpm) 74.26 11.1 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 126.1 16.23 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.72 9.22 Time to exhaustion (s) 587 126 V[O.sub.2] peak (L x [min.sup.-1]) 1.11 0.25 V[O.sub.2] peak (ml x [kg.sup.-1] x [min.sup.-1]) 17.19 3.25 BMI = body mass index; PT = peak torque; FFM = fat-free mass
; AFFM = appendicular fat-free mass
These tests included maximum oxygen consumption, chest press, isometric and double-knee extension, thigh muscle mass by single-slice CT, and fat-free mass
by DXA to evaluate muscle function, ratio of visceral to total fat to characterize fat distribution, and fasting glucose and insulin for carbohydrate metabolism.
Basal metabolic rate is primarily dependent on the fat-free mass
, however there is no knowledge on the correlation between basal metabolic rate and fat-free mass
Furthermore, we compared classical GFR measurement methods with those based on bioimpedance analysis-derived body cell mass (BCM) and fat-free mass