Digital readout of target binding with attomole detection limits via enzyme amplification in femtoliter
The reference range for mean red cell volume (MCV) is 80-95 femtoliter
demonstrated drop-on-demand deposition ranging from picoliter to femtoliter
Molecular imaging with ultrasound commonly utilizes specialized contrast agents, usually in the form of small acoustically active gas-filled microbubbles that possess high echogenicity, sufficient to elicit signal from as little as a single microbubble (femtoliter
[~10.sup.-15] liter volume).
Thalassemic individuals have a reduced MCV, and an MCV of 72 femtoliter
(fL or [10.sup.-12] liters) is maximally sensitive and specific for presumptive diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes.
The Nano eNabler system is a benchtop molecular printer for dispensing attoliter to femtoliter
volumes of various molecules for functionalizing biosensors and creating patterned surfaces.