The fibrous caps
, the lipid contents (determined as red in Oil red O staining), and the amounts of macrophages, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and new vessels (determined as brown signals) were observed under light microscopy (BX51, OLYMPUS, Japan).
OCT produces near in vivo histological images of the superficial layers of the coronary vessel wall and is considered to be more accurate in characterizing the fibrous cap
and thrombosis when compared to other intravascular imaging techniques .
Our study has also shown that almost half of our patients have bridging collaterals, the lesion themselves are generally small in size with tapering ends and without fibrous caps
What they found was that a thin protective fibrous cap
(FC) overlying an atherosclerotic plaque (lipid pool) may rupture, triggering the formation of a blood clot, which may eventually lead to an acute event such as heart attack.
Previous studies showed VSMC proliferation was predominant in atherosclerosis progression, while apoptosis and senescence of VSMCs decreased the fibrous cap
and led to plaque instability.
Shi et al., "Relationship between plasma inflammatory markers and plaque fibrous cap
thickness determined by intravascular optical coherence tomography," Heart, vol.
We measured the thickness of fibrous cap
and collagen content in shear stress-induced carotid plaques.
In the meantime, decrease in the thickness of fibrous cap
at the injury site raises the risk of plaque rupture and may result in death by inducing CAD.17 Biologically speaking, MMP- 9 exerts catalytic action depending on the active center Zn2+.
(14) reported that plaques with thin fibrous caps
and large lipid cores were easy to rupture when using IVUS.
 investigated thirty carotid endarterectomy plaques which were classified as noncalcified and calcified and obtained a similar result that fibrous cap
inflammation is more likely to occur in noncalcified than in calcified plaques, suggesting that plaque calcification may result in protection against the rupture of plaque.
Weakening of the fibrous cap
owing to net degradation of extracellular matrix is believed to play an important part in plaque rupture .
(6) Progression to intermediate and then advanced lesions is characterized by the formation of a fibrous cap
overlying a lipid-rich core.