the Court found that the Fifteenth Amendment
The High Court on December 1, 2011 issued a Supplementary Rule Nisi seeking cause from respondents as to why the Court should not also hold unlawful section 4 of the Fifteenth Amendment
Act, which likewise re-affirmed Islam as the state religion.
But such tests ha[d] been banned nationwide for over 40 years." (41) Chief Justice Roberts' next argued that the Fifteenth Amendment
was "not designed to punish for the past; its purpose is to ensure a better future." (42)
adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment
as well as petitioning the Board of
(22) While giving a ringing endorsement in dicta to the "one pervading purpose" of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments
as the "freedom of the slave race, the security and firm establishment of that freedom, and the protection of the newly made freeman and citizen from the oppressions of those who had formerly exercised unlimited dominion over him," (23) the Court in fact began a tradition of reading the amendments narrowly.
The Fifteenth Amendment
achieved its purpose for a time and black voting participation and representation in the South increased rapidly.
of the Fifteenth Amendment
25 (1965); Alexander Keyssar, The Right to
But Reese, like Cruikshank, was based on the Court's understanding that racial animus was required where the federal government was seeking to penalize violations of Fifteenth Amendment
(5) Scholars cite the text most often in connection with Stanton's criticism of the Fifteenth Amendment
and her anger over women's exclusion from Reconstruction-era constitutional revision.
Their effect was to nullify, through violence, the Fifteenth Amendment
, by turning black political activity and voting into something that required taking one's life into one's hands.
Some have argued that the Fifteenth Amendment
(1870), which guaranteed the voting rights of black men, implicitly repealed the disenfranchisement provisions of the Fourteenth.
Spurred by the lingering controversy, Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, which duplicated many of the provisions of the Civil Rights Act, and the Fifteenth Amendment
, which prohibited denying a citizen the right to vote based on race.