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The primary result of combustion. The juridical meaning does not differ from the vernacular meaning.

It is a crime to burn certain types of property under particular circumstances, both under the Common Law and a number of state statutes. Some of these crimes are regarded as Arson, but ordinarily, arson relates specifically to buildings and their contents.

The act of willfully and maliciously setting fire to property belonging to another person—such as stacks of hay or grain, grasses, fences, or wood—is ordinarily punishable as a misdemeanor. Some jurisdictions grade the offense as a felony.

Statutes relating to fires ordinarily define the acts required for conviction. Under these statutes, willfully is defined as meaning with an evil or malicious intent or malevolent motive.

An individual who willfully or negligently sets fire to his or her own woods, prairie land, or other specified areas might be guilty of a misdemeanor. In addition, it is a misdemeanor to burn such areas without first giving proper notice to adjacent landowners or for an individual to allow a fire kindled on his or her wood or prairie to escape and burn adjoining property.

Some statutes relate to burning cultivated ground. Such legislation exists to prevent disastrous fires, and they do not apply to ordinary acts of agriculture that are properly conducted, such as the setting of fire to an area of land to prepare for planting.

Under some statutes that prohibit or regulate the setting of fires, a monetary penalty is imposed on people who violate their provisions. Frequently an agency—such as a state board of forest park preservation commissioners—is named specifically in the statute to bring an action to collect the penalty. Some statutes impose liability on an individual who allows fire to escape from his or her own property even though such escape is not willful, while other statutes provide that a landowner who sets a fire as a result of necessity—such as a back fire used to subdue another fire—will not be held liable. An individual is usually free from liability when he or she is lawfully burning something on his or her own farm and the fire accidentally spreads to an adjacent farm or woods.

There is civil liability for damages at common law imposed upon anyone who willfully and intentionally sets a fire. Some statutes under which criminal liability is imposed for setting certain types of fires also make express provisions that the individual whose property is damaged by the fire may initiate a civil action to recover any loss. Generally, the limit of damages is the loss actually incurred by the fire. Some statutes, however, provide for the recovery of double or treble damages.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Phosphorus fire retardants generally form a carbonaceous char by a dehydrating mechanism in which phosphorus acids released during burning catalyze water evolution from oxygen-containing polymers to form the char.
The fire retardants used in this study were decabromodiphenyl oxide (DBDPO) and chlorinated paraffin wax (CPW).
The fire retardant treatment significantly reduced average HRR (Table 3) and thus THR (Fig.
Chemical modification.--A permanent fire-retardant effect can be achieved by treating wood with a reactive fire retardant. The fire-retardant elements and/or chemical groups containing these elements can be bonded to wood molecules by stable chemical bonds.
The finding is significant because treating mattresses and upholstered furniture used in public spaces with fire retardants can help reduce fire fatalities and injuries and, thereby.
Attendees at this seminar will learn the basic principles of fire retardancy, including methods of testing, the importance of smoke, afterglow, ash integrity, etc., as well as examining the FR additives market with particular emphasis on that for FR fillers, the main types of FR filler and how they function, the effect of particle size, shape and surface chemistry, the latest developments with the mare products, specialist products, including expandable graphite, zinc stannates and borates, and the use of nanoparticles as fire retardant fillers.
Specialty concentrates in solid or liquid form contain fire retardants, colorants, fillers, antioxidants, uv stabilizers, silicones, blowing agents, slip agents, or anti-stats.
The resultant composites are fire retardant and intumescent, and produce low smoke when subjected to fire (see Table).
Manufacturers make some polymers fire retardant by adding metal oxide hydrates, compounds that release water at high temperatures.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed fire retardant coatings that are environmentally friendly.
Effects of fire retardant retention, borate buffers, and redwing temperature after treatment on thermal-induced degradation.