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The Chippaux-Smirak index has been used as a standard assessment tool for determining whether preschool-age children suffered from flat foot (8).
This suggests that while flat foot deformity is a deviation from normal foot shape, the kinetic response to fatigue is not influenced by it.
With respect to not finding of any study similar to present study in the results of searching articles and electronic resources; to achieve abundance of flat foot ratio in women group with urinary incontinence, the result from pilot study were used.
No significant difference was observed between control and subjects with flat foot for the time of foot contact (T) for anatomical area related to toes (mask 1), metatarsal heads (mask 2), first metatarsal head (mask 3), lateral heel (mask 6), and internal heel (mask 7), p > 0.
From the foot's architecture point of view, the main alterations which lead to the flat foot are:
Interestingly, the number of children with flat foot declines with age.
Flat foot walkers, also know as plantigrades, have great stability.
This is due to a flat foot and can cause back problems, particularly if the condition affects just one foot
Thus a less force is conveyed to pelvic floor and finally, urinary continence substitute with incontinence clinically [12], Aim of this study is to investigate existence of relationship between flat foot as one of the most important foot disorder and stress urinary incontinence.
The study by Sachithanandam and Joseph (11) also suggests an association between time of footwear use and flat foot presence.