former

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former

adjective antecedent, bygone, earlier, foregoing, late, past, preceding, preexistent, previous, prior, pristinus, quondam, retired, whilom
Associated concepts: former adjudication, former conviction, former jeopardy, former marriage, former trial, former will
See also: aforesaid, antecedent, back, before mentioned, deceased, defunct, last, late, outdated, outmoded, preceding, preliminary, previous, prior
References in periodicals archive ?
It is best for revealing lower formants, and with practice can be done at close to typical phonation vocal tract postures.
Thus, trills and taps are similar in regard to closure duration; apical and uvular trills are similar in relation to the fast and consecutive pattern of the trills, apical taps; and approximants present similarities in relation to the articulatory scale of closure and possibly in relation to the position of the third format; while uvular and fricative trills present a similar pattern of formants.
One comes from the fundamental frequency and its harmonics, and the other from the formants of the vocal tract.
The structuralist element in Sacco's legal formants approach
The mid cursor indicates the middle of the formants at which measurement of the formant frequencies are taken in Hertz (Hz) while the two extreme cursors measure the duration of the vowel from the beginning of the sound (left) to the end (right) in seconds.
For unpleasant emotions the first formant is rising, and the second and the third formants are falling.
The specialised formant extraction algorithms used for the noisy data in the current context are likely to undergo several improvements in the future.
Both modules have a set of pre-designed protocols, for example, the measurement of second formant transitions in the [i-u] vowel sequence or the analysis of the diadochokinetic rate (rate at which a predetermined sequence of syllables is performed).
The same formants are essential to humans when recognising vowel sounds in speech.
There is no lowering of the vowel /a/ in ara; the second formant was perfectly level in the environment of ?
Voice timbre embraces all formants in the production of a vowel and has to do with the overall quality of the voice, whereas vowel quality or color is linked to the three lowest formants, the ones that make us able to identify a vowel as a vowel phoneme different from other vowel phonemes, or enable us to perceive the fine phonetic differences in quality between languages concerning the same vowel phoneme.
In addition to this the study of formants also determines the acoustic space as the short vowels cover less space than the long ones.