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See: hiatus, rend, rift, split
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One of the most recent advances in identifying individuals at risk of sustaining fragility fracture is the internationally validated WHO fracture risk algorithm (FRAX[R] tool, available online at www.
ASCO and the European National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) guidelines select patients for anti-resorptive therapy on the basis of bone mineral density scanning using dual x-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine and hip but several other risk factors for fragility fracture can be utilised to select for treatment [7].
Whenever a bone fragility fracture occurs causes of secondary osteoporosis must be excluded, after which treatment must be started.
For men who sustained a stroke, the risk of a fragility fracture following a stroke increased by 2.
factors may reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures, and
Two recent studies in older populations have pointed out that among individuals who have sustained a fragility fracture, before the fracture only 40%-45% would have been diagnosed with osteoporosis based on densitometric criteria (2, 3).
Prevalence of vertebral, wrist, and hip fractures (all fragility fracture sites) stood at 2.
In patients with a prior fragility fracture, femoral neck BMD increased by 2.
Obesity is widely believed to be protective against fracture, but the study documented a high prevalence of obesity in postmenopausal women with fragility fracture.
In its clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, the Osteoporosis Society of Canada (OSC) identified 4 robust, independent risk factors for osteoporotic fracture: low bone mineral density (BMD), a prior fragility fracture, age [greater than or equal to]65 and a family history of osteoporosis (Box 1).
Women with prior fractures are at particularly high risk of sustaining a fragility fracture.
15) For people with a high fracture risk (previous fragility fracture, T score at or below -2.