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In this study, we investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand-wrist functions and spasticity in patients with subacute/chronic stroke, and we found that functional electrical stimulation added to a 2-week standard rehabilitation program was effective on the motor functions.
Myoelectrically driven functional electrical stimulation may increase motor recovery of upper limb in poststroke subjects: A randomized controlled pilot study.
Gait training regimen for incomplete spinal cord injury using functional electrical stimulation.
Functional electrical stimulation and suppression of spasticity following spinal cord injury.
Functional electrical stimulation from a neuroprosthesis in concert with voluntary effort may improve arm and hand movement after stroke.
Abbreviations: 6MWT = 6-minute walking test, 10MWT = 10 m walking test, AFO = ankle-foot orthosis, ASIA = American Spinal Injury Association, C = cervical, CBO = controlled-brake orthosis, DC = direct current (motor), ESO = energy-storing orthosis, FES = functional electrical stimulation, HAS = hybrid assistive system, HKAFO = hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis, HyPo = hybrid powered orthosis, KAFO = knee-ankle-foot orthosis, PID = proportional-integral-derivative, RGO = reciprocating gait orthosis, SCI = spinal cord injury, SFMO = self-fitting modular orthosis, T = thoracic, WISCI II = Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury Version 2.
Getting FES into Clinical Practice"--9th Annual Meeting of the International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society.
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides wheelchair-dependent individuals an opportunity for brace-free ambulation with incomplete spinal cord injuries (iSCIs).
Humberto Cerrel Bazo (Italy) discussed the use of activity-mediated training--such as functional electrical stimulation (FES)--to maximize function after SCI.
The article provides a comprehensive overview of the numerous R&D efforts and hardware developments in Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), in which low-level electrical currents are applied to specific nerves to restore or improve bodily function.
Abbreviations: CFI = Central Fatigue Index, CNS = central nervous system, EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale, EMG = electromyography, FES = functional electrical stimulation, FI = General Fatigue Index, GEE = generalized estimating equations, ITT = interpolated twitch technique, MFIS = Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, MS = multiple sclerosis, MVC = maximum voluntary contraction, PFI = Peripheral Fatigue Index, T1 = resting twitch force, T2 = superimposed twitch force, VA = voluntary activation level.
This single-subject study quantified both the therapeutic effects of incorporating an implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) system into a gait rehabilitation program for an individual with chronic incomplete SCI and the prosthetic effects of using FES interactively during walking.

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